In order to improve the quality of its petroleum products, technology for cleaning the fuel with alkali and producing naphthenic acid
feedstock was acquired under licenses from the Merichem Company of the U.S.
and Tumbull A.: "Factors controlling naphthenic acid
The three soluble copper(II) systems that showed promise were copper plus benzoic acid, copper plus naphthenic acid
, and copper plus relatively small amounts of the azole (or triazole) propiconazole.
At high concentrations, salts and naphthenic acids
would potentially affect fish and other aquatic life.
Tailings contain a host of toxins including bitumen, naphthenic acids
, cyanide, phenols and metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc.
The working assumption behind this treatment strategy is that radiation efficiently disrupts the cyclic structure of constituents within naphthenic acids
, neutralizing their toxic effect and leaving the local environment clear for biological activity.
This book reviews the identification of naphthenic acids
in crude oil and their influence on refinery process units.
Additionally, exposure to chemical compounds, such as naphthenic acids
, primary sclerosing cholangitis, anabolic steroids, ulcerative colitis, intrahepatic lithiasis, Caroli disease and multiple liver cysts are other recognized predisposing factors for the development of cholangiocarcinomas in humans (AL-BAHRANI et al., 2013).
As it is well known , the carboxylic and naphthenic acids
are important surface active substances (SASt) and petroleum fluid components, and for solvation of the oil and gas hydrocarbons they form insoluble salts with the divalent calcium ([Ca.sup.2+]) and magnesium ([Mg.sup.2+]) cations.
The most toxic of these are a mixture of compounds known as naphthenic acids
that are resistant to breakdown and persist as pollutants in the water used to extract the oils and tar.