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narcotic, any of a number of substances that have a depressant effect on the nervous system. The chief narcotic drugs are opium, its constituents morphine and codeine, and the morphine derivative heroin.
See also drug addiction and drug abuse.
Actions and Uses
Attempts at Control
See publications of the Drugs & Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, the Bureau of Justice Statistics Clearinghouse, and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.
a substance of plant or synthetic origin whose abuse leads to narcomania. In Soviet medicine the term “narcotic” is also applied to substances used for anesthesia.
In addition to narcotic plants and their derivatives (the opiates; Cannabis indica and its derivatives, hashish and marijuana; Erythroxylon coca and its alkaloid, cocaine; cola, betel, and maté leaves), narcotics also include alcohol, synthetic morphine analogs, and psychotomimetics. Narcomania may result from the abuse of barbiturates, central nervous system stimulants (am phetamines and others), and other drugs that act on the nervous system.
V. V. PARIN
Soviet criminal law provides punishment for the making and supplying of narcotics and other potent, toxic substances. For example, according to Article 224 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, the making and supplying of narcotics may be punished by imprisonment of up to ten years, with or without confiscation of property. Theft of narcotics is punishable by imprisonment of up to five years, with or without confiscation of property. Criminal responsibility is also specified for planting opium poppy, Indian hemp, and southern Manchurian or southern Chu hemp without appropriate permits. Penalties exist for violating laws concerning the storage, distribution, registration, transport, and sending of narcotics, as well as for involving minors in the use of narcotics.
Several international agreements deal with efforts to control the spread of narcotics. At the International Conventions of 1912, 1925, 1931, 1936, and 1945, special control was placed on the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and on the smuggling of opium, morphine, and cocaine. The 1948 Protocol placed the newest narcotics under international regulation. The International Narcotics Control Board and the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs exercise general supervision over the international traffic, production, and distribution of narcotics. The USSR participates in most of these conventions for the control of narcotics.