In 1925, more than a century after explorer Alexander Mackenzie saw Chipewyan natives using natural bitumen
seeps along the Athabasca River to caulk canoes, Karl Clark of the Alberta Research Council perfected a method using hot water and caustic soda to separate oil sands bitumen from sand.
Canada is the largest known region of natural bitumen
deposits, also known as "unconventional oil.
Believed to contain about 70 percent of the natural bitumen
reserves in the world, (http://www.
Canada is not alone in having oil sand resources; more than 500 natural bitumen
deposits have been identified in the U.
Even though there still are natural bitumen
deposits, in Trinidad for example, Europe almost exclusively processes bitumen manufactured industrially in refineries.
The topics include characterizing and evaluating the Petrocedeno Field, Early Miocene Oficina Formation, Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, Venezuela; a regional geologic framework for the Athabasca oil sands in northwestern Alberta, oil-saturated Mississippian-Pennsylvanian sandstones of south-central Kentucky; an overview of natural bitumen
fields of the Siberian Platform, Olenek Uplift in eastern Siberia; spectral decomposition in a heavy oil and bitumen sand reservoir; screening criteria and technology sequencing for in situ viscous oil production; and tailings management and water use in surface-mined oil sands.
Export and import of natural bitumen
and asphalt: volume, structure, dynamics
Rustam Minnikhanov called this subject very relevant: "Today there is a lot of talk about new technologies and new types of raw materials, and we have to use our competitive advantage in the form of large resources of natural bitumen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen
compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California.
Despite this immense resource base, heavy oil and natural bitumen
accounted for only 3 billion of the 25 billion barrels of crude oil produced by the beginning of this millennium.
Regional Distribution of Estimated Technically Recoverable Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen
The presence of water improves the combustion characteristics of the natural bitumen