In column (2) I replace the default measure of red tape (number of documents needed to process goods through customs) with the natural logarithm
of the number of days needed to process goods through customs.
Other earning assets = the natural logarithm
of the difference between the total earning assets and the total loans.
The coefficient on the natural logarithm
of total revenue is positive in each sample year, but is statistically significant in 2010, 2012, and 2013.
LPCI is natural logarithm
of per capita income, and
Regression of the natural logarithm
of raw counts on time yielded a naive estimate of the intrinsic growth rate (r) of 0.084 (SE = 0.019), suggesting an average annual discrete growth rate ([lambda]) of ~1.09.
We examine five outcome variables: (1) the natural logarithm
of insurer i's net premiums written in year t + 1; (2) the natural logarithm
of total general accounts assets; (3) the natural logarithm
of the ratio of capital to assets, including the interest maintenance reserve and asset valuation reserve as capital; (4) the ratio of reinsurance ceded to direct premiums written plus reinsurance assumed; and (5) an indicator variable equal to one if insurer i is paying dividends to shareholders in year t+1.
It is included in the regression (as a natural logarithm
) using domestic credit from the banking sector (as share of GDP) and M1 + M2 (as share of GDP), both measures -although subject to criticism- are considered to provide valuable information on the financial structure of the set of countries.
According to this equation, the mean temperature of heat carrier fluid [T.sub.h] varies linearly with the natural logarithm
of time ln t.
c is the constant coefficient and [[beta].sub.1] is the slope coefficient, ln(f') is representing the natural logarithm
of the inflation rate, and ln(un) is representing the natural logarithm
of the unemployment rate while e denotes the error term.
Hazard ratios are expressed per natural logarithm
unit of TMSC, per unit of age, FSH, LH, and testosterone, and dichotomized for prior fertility status and medical history of urological infections.
The independent variables for this analysis include the stage of the firm (seed, early, or later stage), the industry of the firm (computer-related, communication, semiconductor, biotechnology, medical, or non-technology), the location of the firm (California, Massachusetts, or other areas), a syndicate dummy that is equal to one if more than one VC invests in a round, and round size measured as the natural logarithm
of round investment.
The estimated coefficients are in natural logarithm
form and thus show elasticities of wheat area with respect to various explanatory variables.