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(analytical chemistry)
In flame spectrometry, conversion of a volatilized sample into free atoms.
A process in which the chemical bonds in a molecule are broken to yield separated (free) atoms.
(mechanical engineering)
The mechanical subdivision of a bulk liquid or meltable solid, such as certain metals, to produce drops, which vary in diameter depending on the process from under 10 to over 1000 micrometers.


The process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. This transformation, often called primary atomization, proceeds through the formation of disturbances on the surface of the bulk liquid, followed by their amplification due to energy and momentum transfer from the surrounding gas.

Spray formation processes are critical to the performance of a number of technologies and applications. These include combustion systems (gas turbine engines, internal combustion engines, incinerators, furnaces, rocket motors), agriculture (pesticide and fertilizer treatments), paints and coatings (furniture, automobiles), consumer products (cleaners, personal care products), fire suppression systems, spray cooling (materials processing, computer chip cooling), medicinal (pharmaceutical), and spray drying (foods, drugs, materials processing). Current concerns include how to make smaller drops (especially for internal combustion engines), how to make larger drops (agricultural sprays), how to reduce the number of largest and smallest drops (paints and coatings, consumer products, medicinals, spray drying), how to distribute the liquid mass more uniformly throughout the spray, and how to increase the fraction of liquid that impacts a target (paints and coatings, spray cooling, fire suppression).

Spray devices (that is, atomizers) are often characterized by how disturbances form. The most general distinction is between systems where one or two fluids flow through the atomizer. The most common types of single‐fluid atomizers are pressure (also called plain‐orifice, hydraulic, or pneumatic), pressure‐swirl, rotary, ultrasonic (sometimes termed whistle or acoustic), and electrostatic. Twin‐fluid atomizers include internal‐mix and external‐mix versions, where these terms describe the location where atomizing fluid (almost always a gas) first contacts fluid to be sprayed (almost always a liquid).

While primary atomization is important, because of its role in determining mean drop size and the spectrum of drop sizes, subsequent processes also play key roles in spray behavior. They include further drop breakup (termed secondary atomization), drop transport to and impact on a target, drop evaporation (and perhaps combustion), plus drop collisions and coalescence. In addition, the spray interacts with its surroundings, being modified by the adjacent gas flow and modifying it in turn. See Particulates


The formation of tiny droplets or a very fine spray, as produced by impinging jets of air on a small stream of paint in spray painting.
References in periodicals archive ?
Long-term nebulization and medical therapy with stent placement was needed to decrease respiratory clinical signs.
When indicated, substrates were rinsed between layer cycles by 30 s of nebulization with DI [H.
24) Although increased volume prolongs nebulization time, some patients may prefer 1 treatment.
Inhaled epoprostenol has a very limited biological half life of only 2-3 minutes and requires continuous nebulization for optimal effect.
The bird improved clinically after initiating oral itraconazole and nebulization with amphotericin B.
Studies show reduction of nebulization time, number of treatments and length of stay with the AeroEclipse II," said Julie Dillon Cusano, marketing manager at Monaghan Medical.
ASM-024 delivered as a solution for nebulization achieved proof of concept in the treatment of patients with asthma in a phase 2 clinical trial program.
Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.
They also investigated aerosol delivery during continuous versus intermittently operated nebulization.
Some of the antibiotics that were used were nebulized already (levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin); others were compounded for nebulization (tobramycin, ceftazidime, and gentamicin).
The company is recognized as the global leader in high performance nebulization for mechanically ventilated patients and its products are today used in acute care facilities in 65 countries throughout the world, distributed by a network of partners which include GE-Healthcare, Covidien, Maquet, Philips and Tri-Anim amongst others.