atomization

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atomization

[‚ad·ə·mə′zā·shən]
(analytical chemistry)
In flame spectrometry, conversion of a volatilized sample into free atoms.
(chemistry)
A process in which the chemical bonds in a molecule are broken to yield separated (free) atoms.
(mechanical engineering)
The mechanical subdivision of a bulk liquid or meltable solid, such as certain metals, to produce drops, which vary in diameter depending on the process from under 10 to over 1000 micrometers.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atomization

The process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. This transformation, often called primary atomization, proceeds through the formation of disturbances on the surface of the bulk liquid, followed by their amplification due to energy and momentum transfer from the surrounding gas.

Spray formation processes are critical to the performance of a number of technologies and applications. These include combustion systems (gas turbine engines, internal combustion engines, incinerators, furnaces, rocket motors), agriculture (pesticide and fertilizer treatments), paints and coatings (furniture, automobiles), consumer products (cleaners, personal care products), fire suppression systems, spray cooling (materials processing, computer chip cooling), medicinal (pharmaceutical), and spray drying (foods, drugs, materials processing). Current concerns include how to make smaller drops (especially for internal combustion engines), how to make larger drops (agricultural sprays), how to reduce the number of largest and smallest drops (paints and coatings, consumer products, medicinals, spray drying), how to distribute the liquid mass more uniformly throughout the spray, and how to increase the fraction of liquid that impacts a target (paints and coatings, spray cooling, fire suppression).

Spray devices (that is, atomizers) are often characterized by how disturbances form. The most general distinction is between systems where one or two fluids flow through the atomizer. The most common types of single‐fluid atomizers are pressure (also called plain‐orifice, hydraulic, or pneumatic), pressure‐swirl, rotary, ultrasonic (sometimes termed whistle or acoustic), and electrostatic. Twin‐fluid atomizers include internal‐mix and external‐mix versions, where these terms describe the location where atomizing fluid (almost always a gas) first contacts fluid to be sprayed (almost always a liquid).

While primary atomization is important, because of its role in determining mean drop size and the spectrum of drop sizes, subsequent processes also play key roles in spray behavior. They include further drop breakup (termed secondary atomization), drop transport to and impact on a target, drop evaporation (and perhaps combustion), plus drop collisions and coalescence. In addition, the spray interacts with its surroundings, being modified by the adjacent gas flow and modifying it in turn. See Particulates

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

atomization

The formation of tiny droplets or a very fine spray, as produced by impinging jets of air on a small stream of paint in spray painting.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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In this study, we compared the use of hypertonic saline with normal saline for nebulization in children who presented with acute bronchiolitis in pediatric unit.
found budesonide can improve pulmonary ventilation and diffuse function in the treatment of neonatal aspiration pneumonia.15 For premature infants,16,17 budesonide nebulization can relieve mechanical ventilation induced airway inflammation and prevent the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Patients were randomized with a computer-generated randomization sequence into three groups: peritoneal nebulization of 5 mL (50 mg group), 10 mL (100 mg group), or 15 mL (150 mg group) of ropivacaine 1%.
Effects of LMWH Nebulization on Total Protein Content in BALF.
The safety of nebulization with 3 to 5 ml of adrenaline (1:1000) in children: an evidence based review.
These episodes usually responded well to nebulization (dexamethasone sodium phosphate, saline, acetylcysteine), although treatment sometimes also included meloxicam (0.3 mg/kg PO q24h X 5 days) alone or with an antibiotic (enrofloxacin [25 mg/kg PO q24h X 10 days], amoxicillin, and clavulanate potassium [125 mg/kg PO q24h X 10 days], sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim [100 mg/kg PO q12h X 14 days], or ciprofloxacin [20 mg/kg PO q12h X 10 days]).
Table 2 shows the mean and the standard deviation of secretion density, plateau and peak airway pressures, and O2 saturation within the control (normal saline nebulization) and the case (NAC nebulization) groups at baseline versus 12 hours later and 24 hours later.
The PEFR was measured in every patient before nebulization and in the 15, 30, and 45 minutes after it.
A FocusJet concentric nebulization system was developed specifically for the detector to enhance performance, especially for the detection of semi-volatile compounds.
Each patient was given nebulization and spot samples followed by two samples on two consecutive days were collected.
Risala Study Circle volunteers rushed to his help and took him to the nearest clinic where he was put on nebulization. The volunteers sat by his side for two hours, got him food and then informed his wife and relatives of his condition.
By accurately controlling the nebulization zone temperature, the mobile phase-to-analyte ratio can be closely regulated.