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needlework,work done with a needle, either plain sewing, mending, or ornamental work such as embroideryembroidery,
ornamental needlework applied to all varieties of fabrics and worked with many sorts of thread—linen, cotton, wool, silk, gold, and even hair. Decorative objects, such as shells, feathers, beads, and jewels, are often sewn to the embroidered piece.
..... Click the link for more information. , quiltingquilting,
form of needlework, almost always created by women, most of them anonymous, in which two layers of fabric on either side of an interlining (batting) are sewn together, usually with a pattern of back or running (quilting) stitches that hold the layers together.
..... Click the link for more information. , smocking, hemstitching, fagoting, some kinds of lace making (see lacelace,
patterned openwork fabric made by plaiting, knotting, looping, or twisting. The finest lace is made from linen thread. Handmade laces include needlepoint and bobbin lace, tatting, crochet work, and some fabrics made by netting and darning.
..... Click the link for more information. ), patchwork, and appliqué. Knittingknitting,
construction of a fabric made of interlocking loops of yarn by means of needles. Knitting, allied in origin to weaving and to the netting and knotting of fishnets and snares, was apparently unknown in Europe before the 15th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. , crocheting (see crochet workcrochet work
, form of knitting done with a hook, by means of which loops of thread or yarn are drawn through other, preceding loops. Crochet stitches are all based on the chain or single crochet, i.e., a single loop.
..... Click the link for more information. ), netting, and tatting are also classified as needlework, being done with specialized needles or, as in netting and tatting, with shuttles. Many of the processes used are ancient, and some have several uses, such as the darning stitch employed in mending, embroidery, and lace making. Patchwork or appliqué, consisting of a cut or pieced design of one fabric applied to the surface of another, was used in ancient Egypt and India.
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A form of construction combining a framework of timber and a plaster or masonry filling; common in medieval houses.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.