contrast

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Related to negative contrast: positive contrast

contrast

1. (in painting) the effect of the juxtaposition of different colours, tones, etc.
2. 
a. (of a photographic emulsion) the degree of density measured against exposure used
b. the extent to which adjacent areas of an optical image, esp on a television screen or in a photographic negative or print, differ in brightness
3. Psychol the phenomenon that when two different but related stimuli are presented close together in space and/or time they are perceived as being more different than they really are

Contrast

A juxtaposition of dissimilar elements to show the differences of form or color, or to set in opposition in order to emphasize the differences.

Contrast

 

in psychology, the subjective exaggeration of the differences between perceived objects or between certain sectors of the visual field during their spatial (simultaneous contrast) or temporal (successive contrast) contiguity. Thus, when the color black is placed next to white it seems even blacker. Contrast may also be manifested in color change. For example, a gray square on a red background seems greenish blue; on a blue background it looks orange. The sharpest contrast of two colors is expressed at the boundary of the two areas (boundary contrast). The phenomenon of assimilation is the opposite of contrast. Contrast is widely used in various forms of art and literature.

REFERENCES

Vudvorts, R. Eksperimental’naia psikhologiia. Moscow, 1950.
Teplov, B. M. “Vzaimodeistvie odnovremennykh svetovykh oschchushchenii.” In Zritel’nye oshchushcheniia i vospriiatiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.

contrast

[′kän‚trast]
(communications)
The degree of difference in tone between the lightest and darkest areas in a television or facsimile picture.
(computer science)
In optical character recognition, the difference in color, reflectance, or shading between two areas of a surface, for example,a character and its background.

contrast

The white level of a display screen. The contrast adjusts how bright the white is. See brightness and contrast ratio.
References in periodicals archive ?
The schedules for the positive and negative contrast conditions were selected because previous research suggested that these schedules would produce sufficiently different within-session changes in responding (i.
To determine if positive and negative contrast occurred, percent deviation from baseline scores were calculated by dividing the rate of responding in the constant component during the contrast phase by the rate of responding in this component during the averaged baseline phase, multiplying the result by 100 and then subtracting 100.
To determine if this was the case, the mean deviation scores for the 20 min and 80 min sessions were compared across the positive and negative contrast conditions.
An attempt to produce negative contrast was then made by, in the treatment condition, raising the rate of food-pellet reinforcement in the second component.
Figure 1 demonstrates that positive induction, and not negative contrast, was observed in responding for 1% sucrose in the first component of the treatment conditions.
In no case did doing so lead to a negative contrast effect in responding for 1% sucrose in the first component.
This group experienced the same procedure as the negative contrast group except that the chance of drawing a blue chip from the first and second containers was 20% during the first (baseline) and third (baseline recovery) condition.
Figure 1 shows that every subject in the negative contrast group displayed negative contrast.
This notion, so evocative of Schillebeeckx's negative contrast experience, was also central to Charles Journet's analysis of evil based on the theology of Thomas Aquinas.
26) The dimensions of negative contrast experience operative in the experience of conversion are most often developed in relationship to the concrete demands of an ethical praxis.
Although negative contrast effects in consummatory behavior are typically demonstrated using food-deprived subjects (Flaherty, 1982; Flaherty, Becker, & Checke, 1983; Flaherty & Largen, 1975.
Although Riley and Dunlap (1979) did not find negative contrast in deprived animals over a second downshift, Flaherty et al.