A typical behavioral response to bright illumination is seen in the negative phototaxis
In previously determining that these animals prefer to swim away from the light (negative phototaxis
) and preferably be touching the sides of the tanks (positive thigmotaxis), they first set about asking whether these preferences could be altered by the size and shape of their testing tanks.
Insects may exhibit positive or negative phototaxis
. These behaviors can be used to either attract or repel individuals (Jander 1963; Kim et al.
Preliminary results support negative phototaxis
, a potential adaptation to target (and eventually adhere to) the underside of submerged surfaces where rotifers that Sommerstorffia must feed upon are known to graze.
formosa) was positively phototactic in the absence of any chemical influence of its host mussel, Anodonta (now Pyganodon) cataracta, but exhibited negative phototaxis
when tested in water containing extract of host gill tissue or in water from the mantle cavity of the host.
Escape behavior mediated by negative phototaxis
in the scorpion Paruroctonus utahensis (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae).
Other wavelengths induced negtive phototaxis, vacillation between positive and negative phototaxis
, or no phototaxis, depending upon conditions of growth and phototaxis assay.
Because it is unknown whether the light signal transduction pathway in sea urchins is more similar to that found in other invertebrates such as arthropods or to that in vertebrates (Yarfitz and Hurley, 1994), we attempted to inhibit the negative phototaxis
of the sea urchins by separately inhibiting transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, a key component in Drosophila light signal transduction (Minke and Selinger, 1996), and by inhibiting phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, a key component of light signal transduction in vertebrates (Takemoto and Cunnick, 1990).
The innate brood rescue behavior of the workers results from their negative phototaxis
For example, when initiated to move by light or another factor, organisms may display directed swimming toward (positive phototaxis) or away from (negative phototaxis
) a light source, using the light gradient for directional information.
brevis and congenus alates is followed by negative phototaxis
of the dealates (Wilkinson 1962; Minnick 1973), although no data have been produced to confirm this observation.
Also of note is that although negative phototaxis
in larva has been widely documented in response to light (Busto et al, 1999; Gong, 2009; Xiang et al, 2010), these studies have been conducted using third-instar larvae rather than the younger larvae we used in aspects of the present study.