On the other hand, Mg and TH express moderate negative skewness
-0.6506 and - 0.6873 and high kurtosis values 2.5862 and 2.6506 respectively.
The unrest state is assumed to be associated with a substantial increase in volatility and negative skewness
Half of the variables of each factor were categorized with the same positive skewness and the rest of variables with the same negative skewness
with the purpose of simulating difficulty factors.
showing that in the small, [d.sub.u] measures the trade-off between the difference in the means and the difference in the third moments, or skewness of the random incomes, with greater negative skewness
requiring a higher expected return to a degree governed by the magnitude of [d.sub.u] > 0.
Positive skewness indicates that most values are located on the left side of the mean, and negative skewness
indicates that most values are located on the right side of the mean.
was recorded in the vast majority of items, apart from those included in the Relaxation and Negative thinking factors and item 1 of Self-talk Kurtosis is also negative in most items, with the exception of item 2 of the Activation factor, items 1, 3 and 4 of Attentional control, and item 1 of Negative thinking, which register positive kurtosis values.
By adding these variables to the traditional CAPM, the authors provided evidences to back up their research by pointing out that the market tends to outperform with 5% each year when the correlation is positive skewness and underperform 2.81% per year with negative skewness
All the sample spacings demonstrate a negative skewness
, indicating a predominance of valleys.
Results are quite different for Nino4, where weak negative skewness
Apart from REXR that posted negative skewness
, and thus a distribution having a long left tail, the other variables CEXR and UNER have positive skewness implying that their distributions have long right tails.