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one of the group of populations regarded as constituting humanity. The differences that have historically determined the classification into races are predominantly physical aspects of appearance that are generally hereditary.
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a term used in many languages to designate persons of the Negroid race.
(1) Negroes constitute the indigenous population of tropical and southern Africa. The use of the term “Negro” as a general ethnic designation is incorrect, since Negroes in Africa belong to a great number of diverse peoples and tribes speaking languages of many linguistic families and groups, for example, Bantu, Eastern Bantoid, Gur, Atlantic, and Nilotic. According to a 1971 estimate, there are more than 200 million Negroes in Africa. Africans do not use the designation “Negro.”
(2) In America, Negroes are the descendants of slaves from different tribes who were brought from Africa during the 16th through the 19th centuries and who have intermixed to a considerable degree with the white and to some degree with the Indian population. They have also adopted the dominant language of the country in which they live (English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch). A 1971 estimate shows their number to be about 100 million (more than two-thirds of whom are mulattoes), including approximately 23 million in the USA and approximately 25 million in Brazil. Most of the remaining Negroes are concentrated in the basin of the Caribbean Sea. The Negroes of America form separate ethnic groups in Haiti, Jamaica, Guyana, and Surinam, as well as on Barbados and certain other islands of the Lesser Antilles, where they constitute the basic population. In some countries, Negroes are part of the basic population, for example, Americans of the USA, Brazilians, Cubans, Venezuelans, Colombians, and Puerto Ricans. The Negroes of the American countries (with the exception of those living in socialist Cuba) usually belong to the most oppressed strata of the working people.
Although Negroes in the USA achieved a certain degree of success during their persistent struggle for equal rights in the 1960’s, they are still subjected to de facto segregation (most of them live in black ghettos). They are discriminated against in hiring, working conditions, wages, education, medical services, and so forth.
REFERENCESNarody Ameriki, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1959.
Foster, W. Z. Negritianskii narod v istorii Ameriki. Moscow, 1955. (Translated from English.)
Nitoburg, E. L. Chernye getto Ameriki. Moscow, 1971.
Frazier, E. F. The Negro in the United States. New York, 1957.
a river in Argentina, in northern Patagonia. Formed by the confluence of the Neuquén and Limay rivers, which originate in the Andes, the Negro is approximately 1,300 km long, measured from the source of the Neuquén River, and drains an area of 146,000 sq km. It flows over the dry plains of northern Patagonia and empties into the Atlantic. There are freshets in early summer. The mean flow rate is approximately 950 cu m per sec. Some parts of the river are navigable. The El Chocon-Cerros Colorados (on the Limay and the Neuquén rivers, respectively) hydroelectric power complex, Argentina’s largest, is under construction in the Negro River basin.
a river in South America, primarily in Brazil, a left tributary of the Amazon. The Negro originates as the Guainía in Colombia. It is 2,300 km long and drains an area of 691,000 sq km. The upper Negro, to the city of Castanheiro, has many rapids; further down the Negro flows over the Amazon Basin lowland in a wide channel with many islands. It is joined by the Branco, a major tributary, on the left. There are flash floods between March and late August, and the water level is low from October to January. The mean flow rate is 29,300 cu m per sec. The Casiquiare, a left tributary, connects the Negro and the Orinoco River, a classic example of bifurcation of rivers. The Negro is navigable for a distance of approximately 1,000 km from the mouth, where the large port of Manaus is located.
a river in Uruguay, a left tributary of the Uruguay River. The Negro rises in Brazil. It measures approximately 500 km long and drains an area of 70,600 sq km. It flows over plains. The mean flow rate is approximately 700 cu m per sec. A large reservoir, Embalse del Río Negro, and a hydroelectric power plant are in the middle course. The lower Negro is navigable to the city of Mercedes.