neo-Freudians

neo-Freudians

followers of FREUD who have modified his theory, often elaborating and clarifying its concepts and developing it further according to their own experience as analysts.

These theorists emphasize social and cultural influences on the PERSONALITY and de-emphasize the role of biological factors. They regard some parts of his theory, e.g. the emphasis on the role of the instincts and particularly of sex as central, as outdated, and they generally find no evidence for the OEDIPUS COMPLEX or the implied inferiority of women except as manifestations of cultural forces. Neurosis is seen as the outcome of problematic interpersonal relationships, and a healthy personality also as a social product.

Among the most influential neo-Freudians are: Erich FROMM, Erik Erikson, Carl JUNG, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, Alfred Adler, David Rapaport. Though they can all be regarded as humanistic, their theories are personally distinctive and the above generalities are found in very different forms in their personal reworkings of Freudian theory See also EGO-PSYCHOLOGY, OBJECT RELATIONS SCHOOL.

References in periodicals archive ?
Gabriel has an engaging writing style, liberally interspersed with vignettes, cases, and quotes from Freud and neo-Freudians.
Second, the description of psychoanalysis includes Freud only briefly, spending most of the chapter on the various additions and mutations from which the neo-Freudians have appeared.
The writing style of the neo-Freudians, according to Marcuse, "comes frequently close to that of the sermon, or of the social worker" (Marcuse, 1955b: 232), suggesting "the Power of Positive Thinking (Marcuse, 1955b: 233).
For example, while Marcuse claims that neo-Freudians ignore the early years of life, even a quick reading of Sullivan's work makes it clear that he was centrally concerned with the early childhood roots of schizophrenia, for example.
In addition to the early critique of Fromm's dissent from libido theory, Adorno later argued that the neo-Freudian (without mentioning Fromm's name now, except with reference to his early orthodox writings) attempt to combine psychological and sociological levels of analysis was misguided (Adorno, 1967; Adorno, 1968).
Fromm's neo-Freudian former collaborator Karen Horney is now being rediscovered as an early proponent of feminist object relations (Chodorow, 1989; Westkott, 1986; Sayers, 1991).