neo-Freudiansfollowers of FREUD who have modified his theory, often elaborating and clarifying its concepts and developing it further according to their own experience as analysts.
These theorists emphasize social and cultural influences on the PERSONALITY and de-emphasize the role of biological factors. They regard some parts of his theory, e.g. the emphasis on the role of the instincts and particularly of sex as central, as outdated, and they generally find no evidence for the OEDIPUS COMPLEX or the implied inferiority of women except as manifestations of cultural forces. Neurosis is seen as the outcome of problematic interpersonal relationships, and a healthy personality also as a social product.
Among the most influential neo-Freudians are: Erich FROMM, Erik Erikson, Carl JUNG, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, Alfred Adler, David Rapaport. Though they can all be regarded as humanistic, their theories are personally distinctive and the above generalities are found in very different forms in their personal reworkings of Freudian theory See also EGO-PSYCHOLOGY, OBJECT RELATIONS SCHOOL.