neodymium


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neodymium

(nē'ōdĭm`ēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Nd; at. no. 60; at. wt. 144.242; m.p. about 1,021°C;; b.p. about 3,068°C;; sp. gr. 7.004 at 20°C;; valence +3. Neodymium is a lustrous silver-yellow metal. It is one of the rare-earth metalsrare-earth metals,
in chemistry, group of metals including those of the lanthanide series and actinide series and usually yttrium, sometimes scandium and thorium, and rarely zirconium. Promethium, which is not found in nature, is not usually considered a rare-earth metal.
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 in the lanthanide serieslanthanide series,
a series of metallic elements, included in the rare-earth metals, in Group 3 of the periodic table. Members of the series are often called lanthanides, although lanthanum (atomic number 57) is not always considered a member of the series.
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 of Group 3 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. It exists in two distinct forms (see allotropyallotropy
[Gr.,=other form]. A chemical element is said to exhibit allotropy when it occurs in two or more forms in the same physical state; the forms are called allotropes.
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); at room temperature it has a hexagonal crystalline structure, but when heated above about 800°C; it assumes a face-centered cubic conformation with specific gravity about 6.8. The metal tarnishes in air; the coating formed does not protect the metal from further oxidation, so it must be stored away from contact with air. The oxide (neodymia, Nd2O3) is light blue. The metal is also attacked by water and by acids. Its salts form various red aqueous solutions. Neodymium is present in the minerals monazitemonazite
, yellow to reddish-brown natural phosphate of the rare earths, mainly the cerium and lanthanum metals, usually with some thorium. Yttrium, calcium, iron, and silica are frequently present.
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 and bastnasite. The metal may be prepared from its halides by reduction. Neodymium is one of several metals in an alloy commonly used in cigarette lighter flints. It also is used in powerful permanent magnets and in coloring glasses. The earth didymia is a mixture of the oxides of neodymium and praseodymium. The lenses of goggles used by glassblowers are made with a didymium glass that absorbs the yellow sodium glare of the flame. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by C. A. von Welsbach who separated Mosander's "didymium" into two components, the earths neodymia and praseodymia.
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neodymium

[‚nē·ō′dim·ē·əm]
(chemistry)
A metallic element, symbol Nd, with atomic weight 144.24, atomic number 60; a member of the rare-earth group of elements.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

neodymium

a toxic silvery-white metallic element of the lanthanide series, occurring principally in monazite: used in colouring glass. Symbol: Nd; atomic no.: 60; atomic wt.: 144.24; valency: 3; relative density: 6.80 and 7.00 (depending on allotrope); melting pt.: 1024?C; boiling pt.: 3127?C
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
However, this process is too slow to work with neodymium ions as the dopant, as 'they would essentially get kicked out of the alumina host as it crystallises,' explained first author Elias Penilla, a postdoctoral researcher in Garay's research group.
Functional visual acuity after neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy in patients with posterior capsule opacification and good visual acuity preoperatively.
And in the end, neodymium is just one of the substances needed to produce those highly sophisticated products we call smart phones.
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Neodymium doped Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticles were prepared using modified version of the above procedure.
Samples of the mid + heavy and neodymium - praseodymium products produced in May and July this year were submitted to the specialist analysts Laboratory Services International (LSI) in Rotterdam, Netherlands (part of the Intertek Group) for an independent confirmation of the purity achieved by the Peak pilot plant.
This combined neodymium with the equally difficult to pronounce praseodymium to produce glass which changes from amber brown to green, as you can see in the picture.
Demand for the magnets, made of such rare earths as neodymium and dysprosium, is expected to grow due to rising sales of hybrid and other eco-friendly cars.
Other changes include a neodymium high-performance magnet, higher power output and the ability to withstand sterilization.
Neodymium-iron-boron magnets ([Nd.sub.2][Fe.sub.14]B) contain neodymium from the lanthanide group of elements, as well as iron (a ferromagnet) and boron.
Two REEs in particular, the refined metals neodymium and samarium, are key components in the manufacture of miniature high-temperature-resistant permanent magnets.
Rare earth materials are responsible for the strongest permanent magnets currently produced, but are expensive to produce due to high processing costs, and a monopoly by corporations in China on some crucial materials, such as neodymium. Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corp., Tucson, Ariz., has pioneered the first U.S.-based neodymium magnet, called Rare Earths Supermagnets, that can be electrolytically manufactured in one step.