Lupus

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lupus

(lo͞o`pəs), noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. In lupus, known medically as lupus erythematosus, antibodies are produced against the individual's own cells, causing tissue inflammation and cell damage. Because the vascular and connective tissue of any body organ may be affected, various symptoms may result. Generalized symptoms include fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and a characteristic butterfly-shaped skin rash on the face. Heart, joint, and kidney disease are common (see nephritisnephritis
, inflammation of the kidney. The earliest finding is within the renal capillaries (glomeruli); interstitial edema is typically followed by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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). It is believed that the disease may be triggered by certain drugs or foreign proteins, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or extreme stress. The disease, which may range from mild to fatal, occurs commonly in young women. It is treated with immunosuppressive drugsimmunosuppressive drug,
any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodies. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor.
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 and steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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; autoimmune diseaseautoimmune disease,
any of a number of abnormal conditions caused when the body produces antibodies to its own substances. In rheumatoid arthritis, a group of antibody molecules called collectively RF, or rheumatoid factor, is complexed to the individual's own gamma globulin
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.

Bibliography

See R. G. Lahita and R. H. Phillips, Lupus: Everything You Need to Know (1998).

Lupus

(loo -pŭs) (Wolf) A constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus, lying partly in the Milky Way, with several stars of 2nd magnitude. There are many naked-eye double stars and several globular and open star clusters. Abbrev.: Lup; genitive form: Lupi; approx. position: RA 15.3h, dec –45°; area: 334 sq deg.

Lupus

 

(or lupus vulgaris), the most severe and frequent form of skin tuberculosis. The causative agent of tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) may invade the skin from without after an injury, but much more frequently it comes from internal organs and lymph nodes affected by tuberculosis. The course and symptoms of the disease vary greatly because they are determined by the virulence of the causative agent, point of entry, location of the disease, and general condition of the patient. The first symptom of the disease is a hyperemic spot that lightens when pressed; a tubercle soon develops. Under the pressure of a glass slide, it turns pale, and the lesion shows through as a pale yellow spot (the “apple jelly” phenomenon). Because the tissue in the affected area loses its elasticity, the tubercle is easily injured and bleeds readily. The tubercles gradually coalesce, forming large plaques. While the center of the plaque heals, forming a white scar as thin as cigarette paper (tubercles may again appear there), increasing numbers of fresh tubercles appear at the periphery. The epidermis covering the plaques thins and desquamates. Sometimes the tubercles become ulcerous; ulcers with a tubercular base may also develop. Lupus generally affects the face (nose, cheeks, ears), the extremities, and, less commonly, the trunk. The mucous membranes of the nose and mouth are often affected. Lupus occurs more frequently in children. The chronic course of the disease may result in disfigurement (eversion of the eyelids, narrowing of the mouth and nares, etc.) and occasionally in malignant degeneration. Thanks to modern methods of treatment and close follow-up of the patients, lupus has become less common and its prognosis is better. The disease is treated with a complex of antituberculous drugs, vitamin D2, multiple vitamins, tonics, physical therapy, sunbaths, and climatotherapy.

REFERENCE

Neradov, L. A. “Tuberkulez kozhi.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po dermato-venerologii, vol. 2. Edited by S. T. Pavlov. Leningrad, 1961.

M. A. ROZENTUL


Lupus

 

(the Wolf), a constellation in the southern sky. Its brightest star is 2.3 in visual stellar magnitude. The most favorable conditions for viewing Lupus are in April and May. It is visible in the southern regions of the USSR.

Lupus

[′lü·pəs]
(astronomy)
A southern constellation lying between Centaurus and Scorpius. Also known as Wolf.

lupus

any of various ulcerative skin diseases
References in periodicals archive ?
Epidemiology, etiology, detection, and treatment of autoantibody-associated congenital heart block in neonatal lupus.
Neonatal lupus comprises several fetal and neonatal manifestations that share in common the in utero exposure to maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies (with or without anti-SSB/ La antibodies).
Neonatal lupus can affect babies of mothers with SSA/Ro and SSB/La autoantibodies, and can appear as a transient rash that disappears by the time the baby is about 6 months old, or, in rare cases, as a transient abnormal blood or liver condition.
Performance characteristics of specific antinuclear antibodies (a) Antigen Associated condition Sensitivity anti-dsDNA Ab Systemic lupus erythematosus 57% anti-Smith (Sm) Ab Systemic lupus erythematosus 25-30 anti-Ro/SS-A Ab Sjogren, SCLE, neonatal lupus syndrome 8-70 anti-La/SS-B Ab Sjogren, SCLE, neonatal lupus syndrome 16-40 Scl-70 Systemic sclerosis 20% Anticentromere Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis 65% Anti-U3-RNP Ab Scleroderma 12% Positive Negative Antigen Specificity likelihood ratio likelihood ratio anti-dsDNA Ab 97% 16.
Most babies with symptoms of neonatal lupus need no treatment at all.
Neonatal lupus provides an "experiment of nature," indicating that autoantibodies are pathogenic for CHB.
6] Transmission of maternal Ro and La antibodies during pregnancy can cause neonatal lupus syndrome (NLS) in neonates, manifesting as transient cutaneous lupus lesions, cytopenia, hepatic and other systemic manifestations or complete heart block (CHB).
There are several types of lupus that have specialized names: primary cutaneous lupus (only involving the skin), primary hematologic lupus or antiphospholipid syndrome (only involving blood clotting risk and other disorders of blood cells) lupus nephritis (involving the kidneys), drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus, a temporary reaction to certain drugs, neonatal lupus (lupus in babies born to mothers who had autoantibodies).
A blood marker often found in women with Sjogren's syndrome can, very rarely, be associated with heart problems or neonatal lupus in newborn babies.
Genetic association of cutaneous neonatal lupus with HLA class II and tumor necrosis factor alpha: Implications for pathogenesis.

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