Lupus

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lupus

(lo͞o`pəs), noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. In lupus, known medically as lupus erythematosus, antibodies are produced against the individual's own cells, causing tissue inflammation and cell damage. Because the vascular and connective tissue of any body organ may be affected, various symptoms may result. Generalized symptoms include fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and a characteristic butterfly-shaped skin rash on the face. Heart, joint, and kidney disease are common (see nephritisnephritis
, inflammation of the kidney. The earliest finding is within the renal capillaries (glomeruli); interstitial edema is typically followed by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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). It is believed that the disease may be triggered by certain drugs or foreign proteins, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or extreme stress. The disease, which may range from mild to fatal, occurs commonly in young women. It is treated with immunosuppressive drugsimmunosuppressive drug,
any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodies. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor.
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 and steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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; autoimmune diseaseautoimmune disease,
any of a number of abnormal conditions caused when the body produces antibodies to its own substances. In rheumatoid arthritis, a group of antibody molecules called collectively RF, or rheumatoid factor, is complexed to the individual's own gamma globulin
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.

Bibliography

See R. G. Lahita and R. H. Phillips, Lupus: Everything You Need to Know (1998).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Lupus

(loo -pŭs) (Wolf) A constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus, lying partly in the Milky Way, with several stars of 2nd magnitude. There are many naked-eye double stars and several globular and open star clusters. Abbrev.: Lup; genitive form: Lupi; approx. position: RA 15.3h, dec –45°; area: 334 sq deg.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lupus

 

(or lupus vulgaris), the most severe and frequent form of skin tuberculosis. The causative agent of tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis) may invade the skin from without after an injury, but much more frequently it comes from internal organs and lymph nodes affected by tuberculosis. The course and symptoms of the disease vary greatly because they are determined by the virulence of the causative agent, point of entry, location of the disease, and general condition of the patient. The first symptom of the disease is a hyperemic spot that lightens when pressed; a tubercle soon develops. Under the pressure of a glass slide, it turns pale, and the lesion shows through as a pale yellow spot (the “apple jelly” phenomenon). Because the tissue in the affected area loses its elasticity, the tubercle is easily injured and bleeds readily. The tubercles gradually coalesce, forming large plaques. While the center of the plaque heals, forming a white scar as thin as cigarette paper (tubercles may again appear there), increasing numbers of fresh tubercles appear at the periphery. The epidermis covering the plaques thins and desquamates. Sometimes the tubercles become ulcerous; ulcers with a tubercular base may also develop. Lupus generally affects the face (nose, cheeks, ears), the extremities, and, less commonly, the trunk. The mucous membranes of the nose and mouth are often affected. Lupus occurs more frequently in children. The chronic course of the disease may result in disfigurement (eversion of the eyelids, narrowing of the mouth and nares, etc.) and occasionally in malignant degeneration. Thanks to modern methods of treatment and close follow-up of the patients, lupus has become less common and its prognosis is better. The disease is treated with a complex of antituberculous drugs, vitamin D2, multiple vitamins, tonics, physical therapy, sunbaths, and climatotherapy.

REFERENCE

Neradov, L. A. “Tuberkulez kozhi.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po dermato-venerologii, vol. 2. Edited by S. T. Pavlov. Leningrad, 1961.

M. A. ROZENTUL


Lupus

 

(the Wolf), a constellation in the southern sky. Its brightest star is 2.3 in visual stellar magnitude. The most favorable conditions for viewing Lupus are in April and May. It is visible in the southern regions of the USSR.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lupus

[′lü·pəs]
(astronomy)
A southern constellation lying between Centaurus and Scorpius. Also known as Wolf.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

lupus

any of various ulcerative skin diseases
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Neonatal lupus erythematosus: clinical character, investigation, and outcome.
Genome-wide association study of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus identifies candidate loci at 6p21 and 21q22.
Neonatal lupus erythematosus is a rare autoimmune disorder with a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations seen in 1-2% foetuses and neonates resulting from trans-placental passage of anti-SSA/Ro (anti-Ro) or less commonly anti-SSB/La (anti-La) and anti-RNP autoantibodies.1,5 The overall incidence of NLE is 1:20000 live births and it is more prevalent in girls with a ratio of 3:1.
Levesque et al., "Neonatal lupus syndrome: literature review," La Revue de Medecine Interne, vol.
A new presentation of neonatal Lupus: 5 cases of isolated mild endocardial fibroelastosis associated with maternal Anti-SS/Ro and Anti-SSB/La antibodies.
Neonatal lupus erythematosus: A clinical, serological and immunogenetic study with review of the literature.
Given the rarity of neonatal lupus, the NIH, in conjunction with New York University School of Medicine, established the Research Registry for Neonatal Lupus in 1994.
An autoantibody to the protein SS-A/Ro, found in women with Sjogren's syndrome, can very rarely be associated with congenital heart block and neonatal lupus in newborn babies.
Intravenous immune globulin has been suggested as a possible therapy for preventing congenital heart block caused by neonatal lupus, and early data from a study of the treatment indicate that further study is warranted.
The presence of one or both of these IgG autoantibodies in the mother increases the risk of neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE), which can cause rash or changes in blood counts or liver function and, in severe cases, can affect the conduction system of the heart, Dr.
* Diagnosis: Neonatal lupus This infant has neonatal lupus erythematosus, a rare syndrome in which maternal autoantibodies are passively transferred to the baby and cause cutaneous lesions or isolated congenital heart block.
Curiously, there is no evidence to date that SLE patients' offspring suffer an increased incidence of autoimmune SLE or that infants with neonatal lupus are at an increased risk.

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