neostigmine


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Related to neostigmine: Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium, glycopyrrolate

neostigmine

(nē'ōstĭg`mēn, –mĭn), drug used to mimic the effects of stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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. Along with several other drugs that have a similar mode of action, it inhibits the action of the enzyme cholinesterase, which destroys the substance acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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 at nerve endings. Because neostigmine increases the effective concentration of acetylcholine, it causes such body changes as contraction of the pupils, increased activity of intestinal muscles, and increased secretion by the salivary and sweat glands. It will cause menstrual bleeding in a nonpregnant woman whose menstrual period is delayed, and it is therefore used as a pregnancy test. Neostigmine and related drugs are also used to diagnose and control the neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis. Because neostigmine causes decreased fluid pressure in the eye it is used to treat certain types of glaucoma. The drug atropineatropine
, alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). Available either as the tincture or extract of belladonna, or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system.
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 is sometimes given along with neostigmine to prevent the latter's side effects. Ephedrineephedrine
, drug derived from plants of the genus Ephedra (see Pinophyta), most commonly used to prevent mild or moderate attacks of bronchial asthma. Unlike epinephrine, to which it is chemically similar, ephedrine is slow to take effect and of mild potency and long
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 often enhances the action of neostigmine.

neostigmine

[¦nē·ō¦stig‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
A quaternary ammonium cation that is used as the bromide (C12H19BrN20O2) and methylsulfate (C13H22N2O6S) salts; has anticholinesterase activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
[7] Neostigmine prevents breakdown of an endogenous spinal neurotransmitter acetylcholine within the spinal cord.
In the case of no improvement, when abdominal X-ray shows caecal dilation, colonic distention 10-12 cm, likely normal small bowel, and no mechanical obstruction or no improvement for 3 days, pharmacological decompression with intravenous neostigmine could be started with caution if cecum is significantly dilated and if there is no response, endoscopic colonic decompression can be considered.
Half hour prior to LPS/saline treatment, the animals were slowly intravenously treated with saline (groups 1 and 2) or suitable AChE inhibitor: donepezil (systemic) (groups 3 and 5) or neostigmine (peripheral) (groups 4 and 6).
Patients who had a previous history of obesity surgery or chronic respiratory disease, renal and/or hepatic dysfunction, malignant hyperthermia, were pregnant, or had an allergy or contraindication to narcotics, neuromuscular blockade agents, sugammadex, neostigmine, or other medications used during general anaesthesia were excluded.
Neostigmine acted as a supportive therapy for cobra envenomation was in accordance to the study of Sooryadas (2011).
Singh, "Effectiveness of addition of neostigmine or dexamethasone to local anaesthetic in providing perioperative analgesia for brachial plexus block: A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blinded, Controlled Study," Kathmandu University Medical Journal, vol.
The present study tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of AChE activity at the periphery by Neostigmine will be sufficient to prevent the LPS-induced suppression of GnRH/LH secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic action of Donepezil.
Patients with any of the following conditions were excluded: (1) mechanical gastrointestinal obstruction (including tumor and stercoral obstruction); (2) gastrointestinal hemorrhage within 72 hours before inclusion; (3) presence of intra-abdominal abscesses at inclusion; (4) presence of intestinal perforation, necrosis, or fistula at inclusion; (5) history of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease) or radiation enteritis; (6) pregnancy; (7) contraindications of neostigmine administration; and (8) disconcerting with endoscopy or surgical treatment or treatment abandonment.
At the end of anesthesia, anticholinesterase drugs such as neostigmine are recommended to reverse the residual neuromuscular block, which has a high incidence rate and can lead to critical respiratory events.[sup][1],[2] Cholinesterase can be divided into two categories: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and pseudocholinesterase.
There are many drugs which are reported potent inhibitors of the enzyme, like physiostigmine, neostigmine, tacrine, and galanthamine etc [10] However, galanthamine (an alkaloid) is highly selective for AChE and it has achieved considerable superiority to physiostigmine and tacrine for the treatment of AD.