neostigmine


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Related to neostigmine: Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium, glycopyrrolate

neostigmine

(nē'ōstĭg`mēn, –mĭn), drug used to mimic the effects of stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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. Along with several other drugs that have a similar mode of action, it inhibits the action of the enzyme cholinesterase, which destroys the substance acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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 at nerve endings. Because neostigmine increases the effective concentration of acetylcholine, it causes such body changes as contraction of the pupils, increased activity of intestinal muscles, and increased secretion by the salivary and sweat glands. It will cause menstrual bleeding in a nonpregnant woman whose menstrual period is delayed, and it is therefore used as a pregnancy test. Neostigmine and related drugs are also used to diagnose and control the neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis. Because neostigmine causes decreased fluid pressure in the eye it is used to treat certain types of glaucoma. The drug atropineatropine
, alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). Available either as the tincture or extract of belladonna, or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system.
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 is sometimes given along with neostigmine to prevent the latter's side effects. Ephedrineephedrine
, drug derived from plants of the genus Ephedra (see Pinophyta), most commonly used to prevent mild or moderate attacks of bronchial asthma. Unlike epinephrine, to which it is chemically similar, ephedrine is slow to take effect and of mild potency and long
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 often enhances the action of neostigmine.

neostigmine

[¦nē·ō¦stig‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
A quaternary ammonium cation that is used as the bromide (C12H19BrN20O2) and methylsulfate (C13H22N2O6S) salts; has anticholinesterase activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
BLOXIVERZ is the only FDA-approved alternative that effectively ends the ongoing shortages of unapproved Neostigmine Methylsulfate Injection.
1 ml]), which show an unexplained potentiation of neostigmine stimulated colon activity, all other studies result in comparable data indicating a substantial spasmolytic effect of PO.
The common diagnostic test is using the anticholinesterase edrophonium (tensilon test) or neostigmine for reversal of muscle weakness.
The panel removed midazolam and baclofen from line-four and neostigmine, adenosine and ketorolac from line-five due to lack of adequate clinical evidence to support their general use for chronic pain.
After the administration of neostigmine to reverse NMB, only one recording from each muscle was made before recording from the next muscle because of the more of rapid rate of recovery.
The second category is the use of rocuronium and the pre-planned reversal by sugammadex instead of neostigmine as a strategy to provide rapid and complete reversal of non-depolarising neuromuscular block in situations where even subclinical residual neuromuscular block may be harmful.
As the development of a safe ultra-short acting NMB agents and cleaner more effective anticholinesterase NMB antagonists remains elusive, neostigmine is the only affordable reversal agent for routine use in Australia (3).
However, even with the best of intentions, dosage and timing of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) reversal with neostigmine can be extremely difficult, and in the context of fast-turnover surgery, potentially impossible (2).
27, 2008) -- Reported on a study in the November 2008 issue of Anesthesiology demonstrating that sugammadex, a novel selective relaxant binding agent, produced a significantly more rapid recovery from profound rocuronium-induced muscle relaxation than the conventional reversal agent neostigmine.