Nephridium

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Related to nephridia: Malpighian tubules, parapodia

nephridium

[nə′frid·ē·əm]
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various paired excretory structures present in the Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Rhynchocoela, Acanthocephala, Priapuloidea, Entoprocta, Gastrotricha, Kinorhyncha, Cephalochorda, and some Archiannelida and Polychaeta.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Nephridium

 

an excretory organ that is characteristic of invertebrates. The nephridium regulates osmotic pressure, extracts and removes harmful metabolites from the body, and sometimes transports gonad products. The most primitive nephridia are those of flatworms, rotifers, gastrotrichs, nemerteans, and some polychaetes. These nephridia, which are called protonephridia, are branched tubules of ectodermal origin. They are closed at the internal ends by terminal cells, or solenocytes, and open to the exterior by means of excretory pores, or nephridiopores. Upon losing its solenocytes and opening into the coelom, the protonephridium is transformed into a metanephridium (primarily in annelids). In some annelids the nephridium coalesces with the mesodermal ciliated gonad funnels, or coelomo-ducts, forming an organ of mixed origin, the nephromyxium.

A. V. IVANOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The attached figures clearly showed two pairs of nephridia, the gizzard in segment 6, and holandry as the generic characters for Brachydrilus, although a pair of spermathecae in 12/13 was evaluated as being in an 'abnormal position'.
Trotzdem lasst sich die systematische Stellung der Art genau feststellen, und auch die noch erkennbaren artlichen Charaktere sind zur Wiedererkennung der Art vollkommen ausreichend.' [And also the nephridia are present only as rudiments.
Both authors indicated a proandric condition (later not confirmed) and did not observe nephridia. Michaelsen (1913: 437) accepted Beddard's priority for zuluensis, making his zulu synonymous therewith.
Michaelsen (1918: 332), in synonymizing the genus Brachydrilus under Tritogenia, accepted duplication of nephridia as the exclusive generic character for this genus, and wrote '...
Thus, digestive gland tubules, intestine, nephridia, gills, gonad, and connective tissue of the mantle were the main sites invaded.
During an initial stage, gills, nephridia, connective tissue of mantle, gonad, and digestive system were infiltrated by hemocytes, and a few neoplastic cells were apparent (Fig.
These sacs (thread glands in Wilson, 1932) are destined to become the first nephridia in the adult worm, derived from the ventral epidermis of the larva.
By the time the rudiment fully encircles the hindgut, not only are the nephridia, chaetae, and uncini present, but also the segmental body wall musculature, chaetal musculature, and future coelomic lining have formed (Fig.
At the same time, the trunk begins to straighten out: as the sock unrolls, the digestive tract is pulled down and enclosed, with the anterior nephridia and juvenile musculature adopting their appropriate positions (Fig.
Internally, the thoracic segment typically inherits the first two pairs of nephridia, matching the two pairs of juvenile chaetae.
The early development of the nephridia in amphioxus: introduction and part I, Hatschek's nephridium.