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(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various paired excretory structures present in the Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Rhynchocoela, Acanthocephala, Priapuloidea, Entoprocta, Gastrotricha, Kinorhyncha, Cephalochorda, and some Archiannelida and Polychaeta.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an excretory organ that is characteristic of invertebrates. The nephridium regulates osmotic pressure, extracts and removes harmful metabolites from the body, and sometimes transports gonad products. The most primitive nephridia are those of flatworms, rotifers, gastrotrichs, nemerteans, and some polychaetes. These nephridia, which are called protonephridia, are branched tubules of ectodermal origin. They are closed at the internal ends by terminal cells, or solenocytes, and open to the exterior by means of excretory pores, or nephridiopores. Upon losing its solenocytes and opening into the coelom, the protonephridium is transformed into a metanephridium (primarily in annelids). In some annelids the nephridium coalesces with the mesodermal ciliated gonad funnels, or coelomo-ducts, forming an organ of mixed origin, the nephromyxium.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The kidney, small intestine, and nephridial gland can also be collected together in a single sample but may also include a portion of uterine apex in mature females.
A transverse section of the anterior small intestine is also included in the section of kidney and nephridial gland.
A transverse section prepared across both the kidney and nephridial gland, including the anterior end of the small intestine loop connecting the tissues, is examined.
Although the nephridial gland is grossly distinguished from the kidney by its red-brown color (Little 1965), histological distinction is perhaps more vague as the tissues appear similar.
Nephridial tubercle free from third and fourth pads, in lateral posterior position.
602) drew attention to the characteristic absence of nephridial pores in Tritogenia.
Nephridial bladders were previously termed 'caeca' by me, following Brinkhurst and Jamieson (1971: 57-60).
Excretory system holoic; one pair of nephridia per segment (except for three anterior segments); large or medium-sized, tightly coiled loops with elongated nephridial bladders, V-shaped or J-shaped at the ectal end.
2 Holandric or metandric (male funnels in 10 and 11, or only in 11); dorsal blood vessel simple throughout the whole body length; excretory system holoic with J-shaped nephridial bladders.
1, 8) and four complete creeping pads with nephridial tubercle opening between the 3rd and 4th pad (Figs.
The position of the nephridial tubercle on the fourth and fifth foot distinguishes P.
Spermathecal pores: In intersegmental furrows 13/14, 14/15, 15/16, numerous, 9-14 on each side, begin around the line of nephridial pores and scattered until mid-dorsal line.