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see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys in vertebrate animals and man. A distinction is made between aglomerular and glomerular nephrons. Aglomerular nephrons are found in certain fishes and contain cells of a single type; glomerular nephrons, found in all other vertebrates and in man, contain the Malpighian bodies and Bowman’s capsules. The renal tubules extend from Bowman’s capsules.

The cells of glomerular nephrons are highly specialized to perform the functions required in the formation of urine—filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In embryos the nephron also includes the nephrostomes, which are the ciliated infundibuli of the tubules. The nephrostomes open into the body cavity.


The functional unit of a kidney, consisting of the glomerulus with its capsule and attached uriniferous tubule.
References in periodicals archive ?
The device will allow testing of drug candidates in a fully human nephron a already in the pre-clinic, helping to improve and enhance drug discovery in the field of kidney diseases.
Previous evidence also showed that cell survival played a key role in ureteric bud branching and nephron formation.
The loss of a sufficient number of nephrons at any time after this period, leads to irreversible kidney failure, as no further cell repair or regeneration can occur.
The frequent use of ultrasound results in early detection of the cases and nephron sparing surgery is possible in a majority of these patients, as was possible in our series.
25,26) Furthermore, p53-null mice showed the down-regulation of PAX2, leading to nephron deficit.
Sometimes a combination of two diuretics is given as it can be significantly more effective than either compound alone, the reason being that one nephron segment can compensate for altered sodium reabsorption at another nephron segment; therefore, blocking multiple nephron sites significantly enhances efficacy.
neglecta caused decline in serum creatinine and no damage to the glomeruli as the most important parts of nephrons and protected the kidneys against serious damages.
They may mediate the transfer of information during renal tubule hypertrophy after nephron loss.
GFR calculator (with SI units): Nephron Information Center Website.
The lesions were "focal," affecting some nephrons and sparing others, and "segmented," scarring one part of the nephron.
Since the end of 2011 there have been no fast-acting O-T-C asthma medications on the market," said a spokesman for Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp.
Stepping into the breach is Asthmanefrin from Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp.