The mean recoveries of rotenone in the hemolymph, midgut, ventral nerve cord
, brain, and excreta were within the ranges of 80.
To identify the cellular origin of the tonofilaments, cells near the brain and ventral nerve cord
Before the 64-cell stage, the presumptive notochord/ nerve cord
cells divide into presumptive notochord cells and presumptive nerve cord
cells (purple cells and blue cells in Fig.
Hereby, molluscan-entoproct tetraneury is not merely restricted to the existence of four longitudinal nerve cords
, but rather is defined by a nervous system that exhibits one pair of ventral (pedal) nerve cords
with associated serotonergic perikarya and commissures, as well as one pair of lateral (visceral) nerve cords
that do not run in the same plane as the pedal cords but more dorsal to them (Fig.
IR decreased and merged with that in the developing nerve cord
Consistent with the results from other gymnolaemate larvae, two rows of sensory neurons border the ciliated groove and their axonal fibers form a nerve cord
that enters the nerve nodule (BCN; Fig.
was undertaken to locate the nerve cord
and thus establish the dorsal-ventral axis for Osedax.
We propose that the longitudinal nerve cords
of insects and vertebrates derive from one and the same centralized nervous system in their common ancestor," wrote Detlev Arendt and Katharina Nubler-Jung of the Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg.
japonicum connects to the ventral nerve cord
through the cerebro-buccal connectives (Fig.
That protein causes the axons to grow dorsally, toward the top of the nematode, instead of taking their usual route along the side of the animal or down toward the ventral nerve cord
, the Canadian team reports in the July 22 NATURE.
Behavioral studies suggest that many of the complex actions performed by octopus arms are organized at the level of the peripheral nerve cord
(Altman, 1971; Wells, 1978; Sumbre et al.
The severed nerve cord
was enough to bring us down," Whittaker said.