nerve gas


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Related to nerve gas: mustard gas

nerve gas,

any of several poison gasespoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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 intended for military use, e.g., tabuntabun
, liquid chemical compound used as a nerve gas. It boils at 240°C; with some decomposition. The liquid is colorless to brownish; its vapors have a fruity odor similar to that of bitter almonds. The liquid is absorbed through the skin, but the vapor is not.
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, sarinsarin
, volatile liquid used as a nerve gas. It boils at 147°C; but evaporates quickly at room temperature; its vapor is colorless and odorless. Chemically, sarin is fluoroisopropoxymethylphosphine oxide; it is more toxic than tabun or soman.
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, somansoman,
colorless liquid used as a nerve gas. It boils at 167°C;, evolving an odorless vapor. It is rapidly absorbed through the skin; death may result within 15 min of exposure. In nonfatal concentrations it is hazardous to the eyes.
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, and VXVX
, nerve gas several times more toxic than sarin but less volatile. It kills within minutes if inhaled or deposited on the skin; protection from VX would require both protective suits and masks.
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. Nerve gases were first developed by Germany during World War II but were not used at that time. These gases generally cause death by asphyxiation, often preceded by such symptoms as blurred vision, excessive salivation, and convulsions. Physiologically, the toxic effect of nerve gases arises because they inactivate the enzyme cholinesterase, which normally controls the transmission of nerve impulses; the impulses continue without control, causing breakdown of respiration and other body functions. Atropineatropine
, alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). Available either as the tincture or extract of belladonna, or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system.
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 is an effective antidote against most nerve gases. See also chemical warfarechemical warfare,
employment in war of incendiaries, poison gases, and other chemical substances. Ancient armies attacking or defending fortified cities threw burning oil and fireballs. A primitive type of flamethrower was employed as early as the 5th cent. B.C.
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.

nerve gas

[′nərv ′gas]
(chemistry)
Chemical agent which is absorbed into the body by breathing, by ingestion, or through the skin, and affects the nervous and respiratory systems and various body functions; an example is isopropylphosphonofluoridate.

nerve gas

(esp in chemical warfare) any of various poisonous gases that have a paralysing effect on the central nervous system that can be fatal
References in periodicals archive ?
Fluoride can be used for everyday products but it is also key to producing sarin, the nerve gas that killed up to 1500 people, at least 400 of them children, in a Damascus suburb in 2013.
The doctors say these are typical symptoms of nerve gas victims," she said.
Britain and France say they have evidence that nerve gas was used.
Aside from the subway attack masterminded by the cult's founder Chizuo Matsumoto, 57, commonly known as Shoko Asahara, arrest warrants have also been issued for Takahashi in connection with other crimes including a separate nerve gas attack and kidnapping.
The group tried to use VX nerve gas a half-dozen times in assassination attempts, and failed each time.
The specific neurotransmitter involved in the nerve gas story is acetylcholine.
Aum, under the leadership of apocalyptic guru Shoko Asahara, launched a nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subways in 1995, killing 12 people and causing thousands to need hospital treatment.
The categorization of nerve gas as a weapon of mass destruction makes it an effective tool for terror.
In 2005, Baxter, in partnership with Dynport Vaccine company, was awarded a contract for the development of a plasma-based therapeutic targeted for use in individuals who may be exposed to nerve gas poisons.
Finally, to the east, lies the world's largest nerve gas incinerator.
The mysterious illnesses suffered by Gulf War veterans appear to be linked to exposure to toxins, including nerve gas, according to a report published by the VA's Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Illness.
Mr Maddison, of Consett, County Durham, believed he was helping experiments to find a cure for the common cold but died just moments after 200mg of the nerve gas sarin was dabbed on his arm.