Surprisingly, we also found similar catecholic granules associated with the comb row subepithelial nerve net
. Our finding that these analytes are detectable in TCA-precipitated protein pellets from P.
The nervous system of this original multicellular animal is organised in an elementary nerve net
that is already capable of simple behaviour patterns.
In scyphozoans, two parallel subumbrellar systems were found based on immunohistochemical staining: one associated with the swim motor system (giant fiber nerve net
, also called the motor nerve net
: Passano, 1965; Anderson and Schwab, 1981; Satterlie and Eichinger, 2014), and one with a sensory/modulatory network called the diffuse nerve net
(Passano, 1965; Anderson et ai, 1992; Gremmelikhuijzen et al., 1996, 2002; Satterlie and Eichinger, 2014).
A network of large neurons was identified as the motor system for coordination of swim contractions (called the Giant Fiber Nerve Net
[GFNN]; Horridge, 1954, 1956a, b).
Within the swim system of cubomedusae, the density of neurons in the velarial nerve net
appears to exceed that of the subumbrellar net (Satterlie, 2002).
This, together with immunohistochemical data, suggests that the musculature of the frenula receives the highest density innervation of the motor nerve net
(Coates and Satterlie, in prep.), prompting a reexamination of the muscular organization of Tripedalia.
1K) and processes from these merged with the immunoreactive nerve net
. The cilia of these sensory cells emerged from the surface of the tentacle, but seemed to extend no further than the mucus layer on the surface.
Maintenance and regeneration of the nerve net
The larger image on the cover shows a nerve net
in the base of an adult stained with both antibodies (the scale, in micrometers, is about 10 times that of the inset).
The acute inhibitory effect of the antibody on electrically stimulated luminescence means that the antibody binds to an antigen widely distributed in the luminescent endoderm or in the nerve net
that propagates the excitatory signals responsible for lighting up photocytes along the signal path (Anderson and Case, 1975).
Using electron microscopy, we observed various-sized granular vesicles in bipolar-like nerve cells of the gastrodermal nerve net
. The granules, which averaged 149.3 [+ or -] 4.1 nm in diameter, were immunoreactive to Antho-RWamide (Fig.
The sulfonated amino acid taurine, which is ubiquitous in animals and prokaryotes and has been implicated as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrates (Huxtable, 1989) and invertebrates (Nistri and Constanti, 1976; Hue et al., 1979; Giles and Usherwood, 1985), has recently been shown to depolarize neurons in the motor nerve net
(MNN) of the scyphozoan jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Anderson and Trapido-Rosenthal, 1990).