Nerve Plexus

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Related to Nerve Plexus: sacral plexus, lumbar plexus, cervical plexus

Nerve Plexus


in vertebrate animals and man, an aggregation of nerve fibers that make up somatic and autonomic nerves; these nerves innervate the skin, musculature, and viscera.

Nerve plexuses can be classified as somatic or autonomic. A somatic nerve plexus is further classed according to which division of the vertebral column it is located in. The cervical plexus consists of the anterior rami of the upper four cervical spinal nerves. This plexus lies on the anterior surface of the deep muscles of the neck, supplying the diaphragm and the skin and muscles of the neck with sensory and motor conduction pathways. The brachial plexus comprises the anterior rami of the first thoracic and the lower four cervical spinal nerves; it passes behind the clavicle and descends into the axillary area. The muscles of the spine, shoulder girdle, and chest, as well as the skin and musculature of the upper extremities, are innervated by the brachial plexus.

The lumbar plexus includes the anterior rami of the first through third and part of the fourth lumbar spinal nerves; the 12th thoracic spinal nerve is also included. The lumbar plexus is located in the posterior wall of the abdomen, innervating the skin and musculature of the abdominal wall, of the external genitalia, and of the anterior and lateral surface of the thigh and leg. The sacral plexus is the largest plexus, comprising the anterior rami of the sacral, coccygeal, and fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves. This plexus lies on the lateral surface of the true pelvis and descends into the gluteal region, supplying the gluteal region, perineum, thigh, leg, and foot with sensory and motor innervation.

When a nerve plexus is injured, the sensory and motor functions of the corresponding body parts are impaired.


References in periodicals archive ?
TENS equipment (Quark, model Nemesys 941, Brazil), wave form biphasic symmetric, was applied in the trajectory of the brachial nerve plexus from the superior member.
The different frequencies of TENS applied in the brachial nerve plexus interfered in the ANS modifying the sympathetic-vagal balance, as demonstrated in this study.
The cervical nerve plexus is located at the posterior triangle of the neck that is formed by the cervical prevertebral fascia, the paravertebral muscles and the cervical vertebra (5).
The first elucidation on the developing oral nerves was the discovery of a circum-oral nervous system called the oral nerve plexus (referred to here as the oral nerve ring, or ONR) in 8- to 14-day larvae (Lacalli et al.
The former branch is a precursor of the right half of the inner oral hood nerve plexus (IOHNP), and the latter becomes that of the left half.
In advanced brachiolaria, IR became focused on the adhesive disc, forming an extensive nerve plexus (Fig.
Most of the cells had an elongate profile with an apical projection and a basal neurite that merged with the basi-epithelial nerve plexus along the basal lamina of the epidermis (Fig.
The podial nerve of the tube feet and the nerve plexus within the connective tissue, adjacent to the mesothelium, were labeled by RN1.
In the respiratory tree, labeling with RN1 antibody showed a prominent nerve plexus in the connective tissue (Fig.
The nerve plexus forms a thin sheath beneath the epidermis and is made up of a meshwork of neurites containing clear or dense-core vesicles (Figs.
Low concentrations of acetylcholine have been found in the muscle layer or in the internal epithelium and the connective tissue sheath, and high concentrations have been reported in the layers that include the nerve plexus and the external epithelium (4).
Similarly, an immunoreactive nucleated nerve cell in the gastrodermal nerve plexus has both large and small granular vesicles, the latter being denser.