Neural Crest

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Neural crest

A strip of ectodermal material in the early vertebrate embryo inserted between the prospective neural plate and epidermis. After closure of the neural tube the crest cells migrate into the body and give rise to parts of the neural system: the main part of the visceral cranium, the mesenchyme, the chromaffin cells, and pigment cells. The true nature of the neural crest eluded recognition for many years because this primary organ has a temporary existence; its cells and derivatives are difficult to analyze when dispersed throughout the body. The fact that mesenchyme arises from this ectodermal organ was directly contrary to the doctrine of the specificity of the germ layers.

Neural crest no doubt exists, with similar qualities, in all vertebrate groups, including the cyclostomes. It has been most thoroughly studied in amphibians and the chick. See Germ layers

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Neural Crest

 

the fold of ectoderm that borders the neural, or medullary, plate during neurulation in chordates and man. The cells of the neural crest become distributed over the neural tube after neurulation, forming the ganglionic primordia. The neural crest gives rise to the spinal and sympathetic ganglia, the visceral skeleton, the pigment cells, and the connective tissue layer of the skin.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

neural crest

[′nu̇r·əl ′krest]
(embryology)
Ectoderm composing the primordium of the cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla, located on either side of the neural tube.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the embryo, neural crest cells are initially specified much earlier than originally thought (Basch et al., 2006).
The study provides a good model to generate neural crest cells in just five days starting from human embryonicstem cells or induced pluripotent cells, using a simple and well-defined media with all ingredients known and accounted for.
As Wilkins tells it, he was photocopying research papers about neural crest cells for a book he is writing on the human face.
Adhesion and migration of avian neural crest cells on fibronectin require the cooperating activities of multiple integrins of the (beta)1 and (beta)3 families.
Abbreviations: CDM: Chemical defined medium; SB: SB431452; PDL: Population doubling level; PDT: Population doubling time; iNCCs: Induced neural crest cells; iPSCs: Induced pluripotent stem cells; iNCMSCs: iNCC-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Dysfunctional neural crest cells cause familial dysautonomia, which is incurable and can affect nerves' ability to regulate emotions, blood pressure and bowel movements.
"We hope our findings can provide a new window into the diversity of neural crest cells and help explain both the normal development of cells that give rise to craniofacial, heart and sensory tissues but also some of the pathologic 'detours' along the way that lead to abnormalities of cell differentiation," said study co-senior author Igor Adameyko, a senior researcher at the Karolinska Institutet and the Medical University of Vienna.
Title: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cellular Migration in Neural Crest Cells and Metastatic Carcinoma Cells.
Neural crest cells are necessary for normal differentiation of myocardium, septation of heart (Kirby and Waldo, 1995) and development of cardiac valves (Waldo et al., 1999).
These seven new cell lines have markers of diverse mesoderm and neural crest cell types and are designated W11, Z2, SK31, SM35, T36, EN51 and EN55.