blockade

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blockade,

use of naval forces to cut off maritime communication and supply. Blockades may be used to prevent shipping from reaching enemy ports, or they may serve purposes of coercion. The term is rarely applied to land sieges. During the Napoleonic wars, both France and Great Britain attempted to control neutral commerce through blockades and embargoes which neither could enforce with sufficient rigor. The Declaration of Paris (see Paris, Declaration ofParis, Declaration of,
1856, agreement concerning the rules of maritime warfare, issued at the Congress of Paris. It was the first major attempt to codify the international law of the sea.
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) proclaimed (1856) that blockades were henceforth to be announced to all affected parties and would be legal only if effectively enforced against all neutrals. In both World Wars blockades were made more effective by the employment, in addition to naval vessels, of mines and aircraft. North Vietnamese ports were mined and blockaded by the United States during later stages of the Vietnam War. Blockades have also occasionally been employed in times of peace as threats to implement diplomacy, as in the blockade of Cuba by the United States in 1962.
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blockade

Med the inhibition of the effect of a hormone or a drug, a transport system, or the action of a nerve by a drug
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Central neuraxial blockade is a commonly performed anaesthetic technique (1).
Neuraxial blockade in elderly population needs less sedation, favoring early mobilization and excellent analgesia postoperatively8.
However, children tend to have less hypotension than adults in response to induction agents and neuraxial blockade due to their greater parasympathetic drive.
Neuraxial blockade procedure was first demonstrated by American Neurologist James Leonard Corning.
Exclusion criteria were any contraindication to neuraxial blockade, allergy to any of the medications used for the study, chronic opioid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, drug addiction, psychiatric disorders and spine problems.
Central neuraxial blockade in the form of epidural is very popular for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries, as these techniques avoid the disadvantages associated with general anaesthesia like airway manipulation, polypharmacy and other untoward effects like postoperative nausea and vomiting and need for supplemental intravenous analgesics.
Avoiding the physiological sympathectomy associated with central neuraxial blockade minimises the haemodynamic fluctuations associated with such blocks.