neuritis

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neuritis

(no͝orī`tĭs, nyo͝o–), inflammation of a peripheral nerve, often accompanied by degenerative changes in nervous tissue. The cause can be mechanical (injury, pressure), vascular (occlusion of a vessel or hemorrhage into nerve tissue), infectious (invasion by microorganisms), toxic (metallic or chemical poisoning, alcoholism), or metabolic (vitamin deficiencies, pernicious anemia). Symptoms of neuritis that arise from involvement of sensory nerves are tingling, burning, pin-and-needle sensations, or even loss of sensation. If motor nerves are involved, symptoms may range from a slight loss of muscle tone to paralysis. Since neuritis is regarded as a condition that results from a number of disorders, rather than a disease in itself, treatment is directed first at the underlying cause. See neuralgianeuralgia
, acute paroxysmal pain along a peripheral sensory nerve. Unlike neuritis, there is no inflammation or degeneration of nerve tissue. Neuralgia occurs commonly in the area of the facial, or trigeminal, nerve and brings attacks of excruciating pain at varying intervals.
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Neuritis

 

an inflammatory disease of the peripheral nerves. The symptoms of neuritis include pain, paralysis, pareses, and the decrease or loss of nerve sensitivity. Neuritides can result from a wide variety of causes. For example, otitis in the middle ear, and such infectious agents as the virus of herpes zoster can be involved in the pathogenesis of neuritis of the facial nerve. Catarrhal factors and traumas can also play a part in the development of this type of neuritis.

Polyneuritis is a special form of neuritis in which many nerves are involved in the disease process. Some polyneuritides are caused by a neurotropic virus. The roots of the spinal nerve are usually affected (as in polyradiculoneuritis), and often the spinal column and even the brain are affected. The most common causes of polyneuritides are chronic exogenous intoxications, such as those caused by alcohol, botulism toxin, and lead, or endogenous, intoxications, for instance, those resulting from diabetes and uremia.

Patients with neuritis experience pain in the extremities, muscular weakness, disturbances of sensitivity, atrophies and pareses of muscles, changes in skin coloring, sweating, and chilliness. These changes appear predominantly in the regions of the hands and feet. Neuritis is treated by first curing the causative disease and then using antibiotics, analgesics, sedatives, and B vitamins. Physiotherapy is also indicated.

V. A. KARLOV

neuritis

[nu̇′rīd·əs]
(medicine)
Degenerative or inflammatory nerve lesions associated with pain, hypersensitivity, anesthesia or paresthesia, paralysis, muscular atrophy, and loss of reflexes in the innervated part of the body.

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often accompanied by pain and loss of function in the affected part
References in periodicals archive ?
Amyvid scan results are indicative of the brain neuritic amyloid plaque content only at the time of image acquisition and a negative scan result does not preclude the development of brain amyloid in the future
50) Also, functional and structural imaging studies suggest that individuals with anatomical features of AD but a higher cognitive reserve might tolerate more of the neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of AD before exhibiting clinical dementia, characterized by performance on neuropsychological test batteries.
and a subsequent autopsy that revealed the now familiar neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that characterize the condition.
Bigenic animals are further characterized by development of AD-associated and/or CAA-associated pathology within about two to three months of age, and at about twelve months of age are characterized by a reduced number of neuritic plaques relative to singly transgenic animals.
Synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase positivity on immunohistochemistry, or the presence of typical or abortive synapses, neurosecretory granules or neuritic processes on ultrastructural examination, demonstrate the neuronal lineage of the tumor cells, not found in glial tumor and support the diagnosis of CN (p.
Plaques were also classified as diffuse if they lacked thickened neurites, or as neuritic if they possessed these structures on the silver stains.
At death, those with mild cognitive impairment also were much more likely than subjects with no such impairment to have the neuritic plaques, diffuse plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.
The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include senile plaques that contain amyloid [beta]-proteins (A[beta]), neuritic tangles, loss of neurons and gliosis which involves microglia and astrocytes.
With the presumption that at least 50 to 60% of dementia is of the Alzheimer's type, much drug research has been developed to attempt to reverse or halt the progression of the disease, with its cortical neurofibrillary tangles and clusters of degenerating nerve endings known as neuritic plaques that are found on autopsy.
The two principal changes are senile or neuritic plaques (chemical deposits consisting of degenerating nerve cells combined with a form of protein called beta amyloid) and neurofibrillary tangles (malformations within nerve cells).
As early as the 1920s, the neuropathological characteristics -- particularly nerve cell loss and the appearance of abnormal cell lesions called neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques -- were observed in the brains of Down's individuals over 35 years of age.
Neuraceq PET Shows High Sensitivity and Specificity and High Predictive Value for Detection of Neuritic Beta-amyloid Plaques; May Be Valuable Adjunct to Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias