(redirected from neurochemical)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.


Chemistry of the nervous system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the study of the biochemistry of the nervous system. Neurochemistry is concerned with the chemical composition and metabolism of nerve tissue.

Neurochemistry differs from the biochemistry of the other organs and tissues because the nerve tissue and the various divisions of the nervous system are so highly heterogeneous in their function, biochemistry, and morphology (the nervous system consists of two types of cells—neurons and neuroglia). Research using individual cells or very small tissue specimens is of particular value and requires the use of special ultramicrochemical methods. The development of neurochemistry in the USSR is mainly associated with A. V. Palladin’s work, carried out from 1922 to 1972, and G. E. Vladimirov’s research during the years 1942 to 1960. Evolutionary neurochemistry is associated with the research that E. M. Kreps initiated in 1945.

The topics studied in neurochemistry can be divided into four specific areas of interest: (1) the biochemistry of the transmission of nerve impulses in the synapses and the related metabolism of the chemical transmitters, (2) the biochemistry of neurotrophic influences; (3) the biochemical effects of external stimuli on the receptors of the sense organs, and (4) the influence of hormones and other agents transported by the blood, as well as the influence of many pharmacological agents on the metabolism of the nervous system. Functional neurochemistry is concerned with the interrelationship between biochemical and physiological processes in the nervous system, as well as with the biochemistry of excitation and inhibition, sleep, memory, and learning.

Neurochemistry has important practical applications in neuropharmacology (particularily psychopharmacology), in neuropathology, and in psychiatry. In the USSR, neurochemical research is conducted at universities and medical institutes, as well as at many institutes that are attached to the republic academies and to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Abroad, research is undertaken at many institutions, including the Institute of Physiology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague, the universities of Belgrade (Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia) and Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); the Institute for Neurochemistry of New York State; the Center for Neurochemistry in Strasbourg, France; and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan. All-Union conferences on neurochemistry have been held regularly since 1953. The international journal that is concerned with problems of neurochemistry is the Journal of Neurochemistry, first issued in 1956.


McIlwain, H. Biokhimiia i tsentral’naia nervnaia sistema. Moscow, 1962.
(Translated from English.)
Vladimirov, G. E., and N. S. Panteleeva. Funktsional’naia biokhimiia. Leningrad, 1965.
Goncharova, E. E., N. M. Poliakova, and Ts. M. Shtutman. Biokhimiia nervnoi sistemy. Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’otechestvennoi literatury, 1868–1954. Kiev, 1957.
Gaito, J. Molekuliarnaia psikhobiologiia. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)
Palladin, A. V., Ia. V. Belik, and N. M. Poliakova. Belki golovnogo mozga i ikh obmen. Kiev, 1972.
Handbook of Neurochemistry, vols. 1–7. New York-London, 1969–72.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
As bedside nurses who are versed in the behaviors and psychological manifestations of PTSD, the nurse can also appreciate the compensatory neuroendocrine, neurochemical, and neuroanatomic mechanisms that are altered during times of overwhelming trauma and psychological stress.
Parallelly, neurochemical markers, that is, muscarinic receptors in lymphocytes (l-MRs) and monoamine oxidase B in platelets (p-MAO-B), have been determined.
So, two modes of work are focused on when antidepressant-related changes are investigated: first, the (highly contested) neurochemical work of the medication within depressed people; second, the specifically human work of agentic individuals, mostly understood in a rational and cognitive register of experience.
MRS is a technique that allows the noninvasive assessment of a number of neurochemicals in the brain and detection of subtle changes in brain biochemistry in the absence of gross dysmorphology.
A specialist in brain phospholipases, lipid mediators, glutamate neurotoxicity, and neurological disorders, Farooqui summarizes the current knowledge about neurochemical aspects of trauma such as stroke and head injury and disease such as Alzheimer's and prion disease.
Specifically, dependence occurs because of a neurochemical dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system (MDS), which also is called the medial forebrain bundle or the pleasure or reward pathway because of dopamine's association with mood regulation, motivation, and reward, he said.
Neurochemical approaches of cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics in neurodegenerative diseases.
NIH-supported scientists at Seaside Therapeutics in Cambridge, Mass., are beginning a clinical trial of a potential medication designed to correct a central neurochemical defect underlying Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability.
The therapy entails taking three genes that produce dopamine, a key neurochemical that is depleted in Parkinson's.
A study investigating the compound's neurochemical effects in the human brain is ongoing.
By switching off a certain neurochemical pathway, scientists shrunk fat deposits by up to 50% in the stressed mice.