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Obesity-induced type 2 diabetes impairs neurological recovery after stroke in correlation with decreased neurogenesis and persistent atrophy of parvalbumin-positive interneurons
Neurogenesis may help treat other types of constipation.
Neurogenesis was originally believed to have two phases: the developmental phase, which occurred mostly in embryos and immediately after birth and in which neurons are generated from a stem cell that build up circuitries of the full nervous system.
"The development of new neurons is a vital part of our mental growth during adulthood, and the exciting results of these nonclinical studies highlight AV-101's potential to promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis," said CEO Shawn Singh.
GAL group revealed significant increase in neurogenesis in the granular layer of dentate gyrus comparing with the positive control group and negative control group (P < 0.001), but it was less than the EPO group (P < 0.01) [Figure 5].
"In our study we showed that exercise is one of the best ways to turn on neurogenesis, and then, by figuring out the molecular and genetic events involved, we determined how to mimic the beneficial effects of exercise through gene therapy and pharmacological agents," says Rudolph Tanzi, PhD, director of the MGH Genetics and Aging Research Unit and vice-chair of the hospital's Department of Neurology.
'In mice, researchers have shown that neurogenesis drops pretty dramatically after middle age,' said the study's lead author Maura Boldrini, MD, PhD, a research scientist in psychiatry and a member of the Columbia Stem Cell Initiative.
Noting that aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, with a resulting volumetric decline in the neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, Maura Boldrini, M.D., Ph.D., from Columbia University in New York City, and colleagues examined whole-autopsy hippocampi from healthy humans aged 14 to 79 years.
Until now, many researchers have been trying to find new medical plants and their components, which can promote neurogenesis in the neurogenic regions, as a potential therapeutic agent of neurodegenerative diseases and many studies have demonstrated that some plant extracts and their components have the capacity to promote neurogenesis.[26],[27] Although some researchers recently showed that extracts of plants in the family Umbelliferae including Oenanthe javanica and Angelica sinensis improved cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the SGZ of the hippocampal DG,[28],[29] neurogenic effects of GLein the brainhave not yet been investigated.
Within the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus plays a special role: it sits at the beginning of a trisynaptic circuit of memory formation, is necessary for encoding multiple inputs for contextual pattern separation [15-17], and supports adult neurogenesis. Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from endogenous stem cells, has been demonstrated in a wide range of species including rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans [5, 9, 18-20].
New brain cells replace injured and dying ones in a process called neurogenesis. Researchers have linked several activities that can help maintain or increase neurogenesis in older age.
This discovery prompted Brant Cortright, PhD, professor of psychology at San Francisco's California Institute of Integral Studies, to look at the research and write a book about this exciting new field of neurogenesis.