Neurohormone

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neurohormone

[¦nu̇r·ō′hȯr‚mōn]
(neuroscience)
A hormone produced by nervous tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Neurohormone

 

a physiologically active substance that is produced by special neurons—the neurosecretory cells.

Like a mediator substance (chemical transmitter), a neurohormone is released by nerve endings, but in contrast to the first, a neurohormone is secreted into the blood or tissue fluid. Such secretion into the body fluids is characteristic of hormones. Neurohormones, for example, vasopressin, oxytocin, and the adenohypophysiotropic hormones, have been discovered in many vertebrates and in many invertebrates, including mollusks, worms, and arthropods. Chemically, the majority of neurohormones are peptides; some are catecholamines. Biosynthesis of peptide neurohormones occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body of the neuron, The peptides are packaged in the Golgi complex and are subsequently transported along the axon to the nerve endings. In the mammalian brain the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus are a source of neurohormones. Neurohormones regulate the activity of the cells of some endocrine glands and influence the cells of other organs.

REFERENCE

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The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Depending on the nature of the load imposed (and the degree of neurohormonal activation), the resulting hypertrophy can be attributable to sarcomeric replication in parallel (concentric hypertrophy) or in series (eccentric hypertrophy).
Heart failure (HF) [3] pathophysiology and clinical evolution are greatly influenced by neurohormonal activation of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems (1).
The post intervention neurohormonal profile did not correspond to a new prognostic profile for individual patients, because its prognostic power was not improved.
The pathophysiological concept of heart failure has changed dramatically during the last decade with increased understanding of a multiorgan neurohormonal response (1, 2) as well as activation of immunological (3, 4) and inflammatory systems (5-7).Asa consequence, new biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in heart failure have emerged (8-10).
Aldosterone, the major mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, is a key modulator of neurohormonal hemodynamic regulation (13).In the setting of acute infarction, adverse remodeling, mediated in part by aldosterone, plays a deleterious role that worsens cardiac function and leads to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure (14).
These include diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), descending pain inhibitory pathways from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus, neurohormonal responses and central control of autonomic nervous system from the arcuate nucleus (Carlson, 2002; White, 1999).
Spirinolactone (Aldactone, Aldactazide) is used for physiologic purposes (as a neurohormonal regulator) and is not used for blood pressure control.
One theory is that X-rays may affect neurohormonal mechanisms in the head and neck region, such as thyroid function.
This includes not only the influence of genes on behavior, but also the neurohormonal pathways through which psychosocial factors influence gene expression.
It is also possible that estrogen may have attenuated remodeling through interactions with activated neurohormonal systems.
Neurohormonal peptides were initially described by Henry and Pearce in 1956 after they noted uresis following the inflation of a balloon placed in a dog's atrium.
Initial neurohormonal changes are deleterious and lead to pulmonary edema.