Neurohormone

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neurohormone

[¦nu̇r·ō′hȯr‚mōn]
(neuroscience)
A hormone produced by nervous tissue.

Neurohormone

 

a physiologically active substance that is produced by special neurons—the neurosecretory cells.

Like a mediator substance (chemical transmitter), a neurohormone is released by nerve endings, but in contrast to the first, a neurohormone is secreted into the blood or tissue fluid. Such secretion into the body fluids is characteristic of hormones. Neurohormones, for example, vasopressin, oxytocin, and the adenohypophysiotropic hormones, have been discovered in many vertebrates and in many invertebrates, including mollusks, worms, and arthropods. Chemically, the majority of neurohormones are peptides; some are catecholamines. Biosynthesis of peptide neurohormones occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body of the neuron, The peptides are packaged in the Golgi complex and are subsequently transported along the axon to the nerve endings. In the mammalian brain the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus are a source of neurohormones. Neurohormones regulate the activity of the cells of some endocrine glands and influence the cells of other organs.

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Among other neurohormonal biomarkers, serum aldosterone was weakly correlated with higher plasma renin activity and NPs at baseline ([rho] [less than or equal to] 0.
2007) have indicated, the origins of this variation could include genetic, neurohormonal, and sociocultural factors, and the identification of the origins requires further research.
La EDV puede causar una insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva en la cual la actividad neurohormonal mediada principalmente por la noradrenalina, angiotensina II y aldosterona generan un remodelamiento cardiaco; como consecuencia de estos cambios fisiopatologicos el animal presenta signos congestivos como edema pulmonar, ascitis y en algunas raras ocasiones edemas perifericos (8).
B-type natriuretic peptide in the neurohormonal hierarchy in heart failure.
Alternative mechanisms such as a direct receptor mediated cardioprotective effect and neurohormonal modulation may be responsible.
On the view I've proposed, there are many admissible cutoffs--including some that require the loss of neurohormonal regulation, and others that do not (such as the whole-brain and brainstem criteria).
One theory is that X-rays may affect neurohormonal mechanisms in the head and neck region, such as thyroid function.
The 2 major goals of HF treatment are to improve hemodynamics and reduce neurohormonal stimulation.
This includes not only the influence of genes on behavior, but also the neurohormonal pathways through which psychosocial factors influence gene expression.
These include diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), descending pain inhibitory pathways from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus, neurohormonal responses and central control of autonomic nervous system from the arcuate nucleus (Carlson, 2002; White, 1999).
Researchers hypothesize that EECP may work by promoting the release of beneficial growth factors, thus improving the neurohormonal milieu within blood vessels, and by encouraging the proliferation of collateral blood vessels.
For example, our compromised biological nature (with its neurochemical and neurohormonal processes) will impact our ethics at several different levels--the perception, interpretation, and formulation of such a system as well as the obvious behavioral implementation of such a system.