Neurohormone


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neurohormone

[¦nu̇r·ō′hȯr‚mōn]
(neuroscience)
A hormone produced by nervous tissue.

Neurohormone

 

a physiologically active substance that is produced by special neurons—the neurosecretory cells.

Like a mediator substance (chemical transmitter), a neurohormone is released by nerve endings, but in contrast to the first, a neurohormone is secreted into the blood or tissue fluid. Such secretion into the body fluids is characteristic of hormones. Neurohormones, for example, vasopressin, oxytocin, and the adenohypophysiotropic hormones, have been discovered in many vertebrates and in many invertebrates, including mollusks, worms, and arthropods. Chemically, the majority of neurohormones are peptides; some are catecholamines. Biosynthesis of peptide neurohormones occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body of the neuron, The peptides are packaged in the Golgi complex and are subsequently transported along the axon to the nerve endings. In the mammalian brain the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus are a source of neurohormones. Neurohormones regulate the activity of the cells of some endocrine glands and influence the cells of other organs.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Exercise-related changes in these neurohormones were also related to cardiorespiratory fitness.
The MLT ability to attenuate the production of reactive species (ROS) and also regulating the expression of proteins of the apoptotic pathways, such as Bcl-2 and Bax [65, 66], have been related to the antiapoptotic property of this neurohormone. The increase in PCNA content in the melatonin-treated diabetic group (MD2), besides expressing an increase in cell proliferation, can also corroborate the protective action of MLT because PCNA is also involved in DNA damage repair and epigenomic maintenance [67].
Each neurohormone that is released will have an impact on both the woman's body and the way she feels; the alternative may also be true that the woman's feelings may inhibit or support the release of the neurohormone.
This classification is now universally accepted: inflammation, neurohormones, myocyte Injury, Oxidative Stress, and extracellular matrix remodelling biomarkers (Table 1).
Effect of long-term enalapril therapy on neurohormones in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.
Brain natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized in ventricular myocardium and released in response to cardiac stretch.
McInnes and colleagues at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) have shown, for the first time, that anti-TNF-alpha therapy lowers circulating levels of the cardiac neurohormone N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who do not have evident heart failure.
The notion of GABA as a crustacean neurohormone is not a new one: Kravitz et al.
Mclnnes and colleagues at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) have shown, for the first time, that anti-TNF-alpha therapy decreases circulating levels of the cardiac neurohormone N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who do not have evident heart failure.
Stress in employed women: impact of marital status and children at home on neurohormone output and home strain.
When the chemical messenger is released into the extracellular space and enters a nearby capillary, the chemical is called a neurohormone. Neurons that conduct impulses to other cells typically have myelin sheaths, which enhance speed of transmission.