Because of thermodynamic constraints, the doping process (ion ingress and egress) is associated with a transfer of neutral species
such as solvents and salts (analogous to osmosis) across the interface between the polymer and its medium of exposure.
Differentiating the expressions for the short-range and long-range force contribution to the excess Gibbs energy one can get activity coefficients for the ions and the neutral species
The aim of this work is to contribute to current investigations in the field of the relationships between the structure and intrinsic (gas phase) acidity of neutral species.
These data allow us to compute the gas phase acidity of the various neutral species and the proton affinities (PA) of their conjugate (anionic) bases.
The absorption spectrum of the neutral species
is strongly red shifted relative to that of the parent cinnamic acid.
During an extraction cycle, glucose and neutral species
migrate to the cathode, whereas anionic species migrate to the anode.
analysis of neutral species
can also be performed since the ion source is mounted in front of the CMA (see Figure 2).
This method allows the interception and characterization of key intermediates, either as transient species or as protonated/deprotonated forms of neutral species
To understand the interaction between the plasma discharge and the flow of neutral species
in the reactor, PLASMATOR results are used by FLUENT to solve the three-dimensional velocity, pressure, temperature, and species concentrations.