The website adds that "the transport cask surrounding the canister is specifically engineered with multiple barriers, including containment boundary, structural shell, gamma shielding material, and solid neutron shield
," and that the canister is sealed in thick-walled concrete when it arrives at the storage facility.
The paraffin and lithium carbonate mixed neutron shield
is used to protect the detector against neutrons while lead shielding provides detector protection against gamma rays.
The boron-rich concrete technology, "Thermal neutron shield
and method of manufacture," has been granted patent #8,450,707 by the U.S.
Lead, steel, concrete, and water are pretty good at eliminating gamma rays; water, plastic, steel, lead, and oil are often used in neutron shields
. Shields can also help reactors work better by turning the energy released by the nuclear radiation into useful heat and reflecting neutrons back into the fissionable material.