neutrosophic logic

neutrosophic logic

(Or "Smarandache logic") A generalisation of fuzzy logic based on Neutrosophy. A proposition is t true, i indeterminate, and f false, where t, i, and f are real values from the ranges T, I, F, with no restriction on T, I, F, or the sum n=t+i+f. Neutrosophic logic thus generalises:

- intuitionistic logic, which supports incomplete theories (for 0<n<100 and i=0, 0<=t,i,f<=100);

- fuzzy logic (for n=100 and i=0, and 0<=t,i,f<=100);

- Boolean logic (for n=100 and i=0, with t,f either 0 or 100);

- multi-valued logic (for 0<=t,i,f<=100);

- paraconsistent logic (for n>100 and i=0, with both t,f<100);

- dialetheism, which says that some contradictions are true (for t=f=100 and i=0; some paradoxes can be denoted this way).

Compared with all other logics, neutrosophic logic introduces a percentage of "indeterminacy" - due to unexpected parameters hidden in some propositions. It also allows each component t,i,f to "boil over" 100 or "freeze" under 0. For example, in some tautologies t>100, called "overtrue".

["Neutrosophy / Neutrosophic probability, set, and logic", F. Smarandache, American Research Press, 1998].
References in periodicals archive ?
Unmatter as theoretically predicted in the framework of the neutrosophic logic and statistics [4-6] is considered as a combination of matter and antimatter that bound together, or a long-range mixture of matter and antimatter forming a weakly-coupled phase.
Similarly, there are many ways to construct such connectives according to each particular problem to solve; here we present the easiest ones: One notes the Neutrosophic logic values of the propositions A1 and A2 by
Sukanto Bhattacharya's doctoral thesis entitled "Utility, Rationality and Beyond--From Behavioral Finance to Informational Finance" not only succeeded in earning him a PhD degree but also went on to arguably become recognized as the first comprehensive published work of its kind on the application of neutrosophic logic in theoretical finance.
Emphasizing advancements and applications to neutrosophics, this text introduces the interval neutrosophic set, which is an instance of the neutrosophic set, describes the interval neutrosophic logic based on neutrosophic sets, a situation which allows for modeling of fuzzy, incomplete, and inconsistent information, and gives a neutrosophic relational data model with a relational data base, and another model in the form of a soft semantic web services agent.
More general is the Neutrosophic Logic [Smarandache, 1995], where the truth (T) and the falsity (F) and the indeterminacy (1) can be any numbers in [0, 1], then 0 [less than or equal to] T + I + F [less than or equal to] 3.
Smarandache, Neutrosophy, a new Branch of Philosophy, Multi-Valued Logic, 3(2002)(special issue on Neutrosophy and Neutrosophic Logic, 297-384.
The multispace is an extension of the neutrosophic logic and set, which derived from neutrosophy.
Neutrosophic Logic, Set, Probability and Statistics", American Research Press, 1998.
Neutrosophy was extended to Neutrosophic Logic, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Probability and Neutrosophic Statistics, which are used in technical applications.
Moreover, arbitrary mixtures of particles and antiparticles may be regarded as a manifestation of "unmatter", a concept launched in the context of Neutrosophic Logic [22-24].
The present article discusses Neutrosophic logic view to Schrodinger's cat paradox.
In the context of Neutrosophic logic as conceived by one of these writers [8], one may derive a proposition from the arguments presented herein, i.