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nitric acid esterester,
any one of a group of organic compounds with general formula RCO2R′ (where R and R′ are alkyl groups or aryl groups) that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
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 of cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylinpyroxylin
, partially nitrated cellulose (see nitrocellulose). It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by dissolving pyroxylin in a mixture of volatile solvents and adding a plasticizer and a pigment or dye.
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 is formed.
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(organic chemistry)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Aromatics, esters, and alcohols were the main odorant substances released from nitrocellulose lacquer-coated particleboard.
Fred Olsen, working for Olin's Western Cartridge Company, developed a much quicker method of making even smaller-granuled smokeless rifle powder, by stirring a slurry rapidly until tiny "bubbles" of nitrocellulose formed.
Many other research studies have also focused on using a nitrocellulose membrane as test template for binding and detecting antigens by the principle of immunodot blot assay and this aspect has also been practiced in some research applications (Pappas et al.
Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications.
Rapid visual detection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae heat-labile enterotoxins by nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Since reliable means of stabilizing the nitrocellulose propellants had not yet been developed, these powders were still in danger of decomposition and, thus, instability.
"Nitrocellulose has proven to be the protein-assay substrate of choice for decades.
Allows use of PVC in contact with furniture finishes because it has little tendency to migrate and soften nitrocellulose lacquers.
Electrophoresed proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose paper (Hybond-C Extra Supported, 0.45 [micro]m; Amersham, Piscataway, NJ, USA) using a Hoefer Scientific Instruments Transphor unit (Hoefer Scientific, San Francisco, CA, USA) at 100 mA for 14 hr.
To test for a sugar chain, the researchers put a dot of each volunteer's saliva onto a piece of nitrocellulose paper, then bathed the paper with a marker chemical that's attracted to the given sugar chain.
It was then digested with restriction enzymes, separated using gel electrophoresis, and transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane by a Southern blotting mechanism.
The AldeSol series is compatible with solvent-based chemistries, including acrylic, urethane, epoxy, polyester, alkyds, nitrocellulose, vinyl, and hybrid systems.