nitrogen mustard


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nitrogen mustard,

any of various poisonous compounds originally developed for military use (see poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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). Like mustard gas and lewisite, it is a vesicant (blistering agent). In the form of its crystalline hydrochloride it is used as a drug in the treatment of Hodgkin's diseaseHodgkin's disease,
a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. First identified in 1832 in England by Thomas Hodgkin, it is a type of malignant lymphoma. Incidence peaks in young adults and the elderly.
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, non-Hodgkin's lymphomaslymphoma, non-Hodgkin's,
any cancer of the lymphoid tissue (see lymphatic system) in which the Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease (the other category of lymphoma) are not present.
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, and brain tumors. Nitrogen mustards cause mutations in the genetic material of cells, thereby disrupting mitosis, or cell division. Cells vary in their susceptibility to nitrogen mustards, with rapidly proliferating tumor and cancer cells most sensitive; bone marrow, which produces red blood cells, is also sensitive, and depression of red blood cell production is a frequent side effect of nitrogen mustard therapy. The nitrogen mustards also suppress the immune response (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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).

nitrogen mustard

[′nī·trə·jən ′məs·tərd]
(organic chemistry)
Any of the substituted mustard gases in which the sulfur is replaced by an amino nitrogen, such as for methyl bis(2-chlorethyl)amine, (CH2ClCH2)2NCH3; useful in cancer research.
References in periodicals archive ?
A group of 10 patients applied nitrogen mustard unilaterally daily, then dropped back to three times per week as their hair grew in.
KEY WORDS: cerebellum, DNA damage, granule cell, HN2, MAM, methylazoxymethanol, nitrogen mustard.
The regimen, known as the Stanford V, involves a combination of doxorubicin, vinblastine, nitrogen mustard, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, and prednisone with differing levels of radiation given for 8 or 12 weeks.
At one meeting of its transplant committee, I got my courage up and presented my Minnesota lab work on nitrogen mustard immunosuppression as a means of promoting the survival of skin homografts.
In cases of single-system skin disease, treatment options include topical steroids, psoralen-ultraviolet-light treatment, and topical nitrogen mustard.
At the Mayo Clinic, the practice is to treat patients conservatively, using topical nitrogen mustard and phototherapy with UVB or PUVA.
Other currently available but unapproved treatments for early-stage CTCL, including nitrogen mustard and carmustine, may be limited by allergic hypersensitivity reactions, commercial availability, and an increased risk of secondary skin cancers.
Treatments currently available for early-stage CTCL, such as nitrogen mustard and carmustine, are generally applied daily to the patient's whole body; this can be a time-consuming and difficult task for many patients, especially those who live alone.