nitroglycerin


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to nitroglycerin: nitroglycerin tablets

nitroglycerin

(nī'trōglĭs`ərĭn), C3H5N3O9, colorless, oily, highly explosive liquid. It is the nitric acid triester of glycerolglycerol,
 glycerin,
 glycerine,
or 1,2,3-propanetriol
, CH2OHCHOHCH2OH, colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting, syrupy liquid. Glycerol is a trihydric alcohol. It melts at 17.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and is more correctly called glycerol trinitrate. It is insoluble in water but soluble in ether, acetone, benzene, and chloroform. An unstable compound, nitroglycerin decomposes with explosive violence when heated or jarred. It is mixed with an absorbent material to form dynamitedynamite,
explosive made from nitroglycerin and an inert, porous filler such as wood pulp, sawdust, kieselguhr, or some other absorbent material. The proportions vary in different kinds of dynamite; often ammonium nitrate or sodium nitrate is added.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (which is not so sensitive to slight shocks) and is also used as a component of smokeless powder. Nitroglycerin was discovered (c.1847) by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero and was first produced commercially by Alfred NobelNobel, Alfred Bernhard
, 1833–96, Swedish chemist and inventor. Educated in St. Petersburg, Russia, he traveled as a youth and returned to St. Petersburg in 1852 to assist his father in the development of torpedoes and mines.
..... Click the link for more information.
. It is used medicinally to provide temporary relief from the symptoms of angina pectorisangina pectoris
, condition characterized by chest pain that occurs when the muscles of the heart receive an insufficient supply of oxygen. This results when the arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood are narrowed by arteriosclerosis.
..... Click the link for more information.
; the body converts it to nitric oxide, which causes narrowed blood vessels to relax.

Nitroglycerin

 

(glyceryl trinitrate), ONO2CH2—CHO-NO2—CH2ONO2, the triester of glycerol with nitric acid; a powerful explosive.

Nitroglycerin is an oily, colorless liquid that crystallizes in two modifications: a labile form (melting point, 2.8°C) and a stable form (melting point, 13.5°C). Density, 1.591 g/cm3 (25°C). Nitroglycerin is virtually insoluble in water but readily soluble in acetone, ether, and benzene. It explodes upon even a slight impact. Heat of explosion, 6.3 megajoules per kg, or 1,500 kcal/kg; detonation rate, 7.7 km/sec; volume of gaseous explosion products, 713 liters per kg; flash point, ∼200°C.

Nitroglycerin is produced by nitration of glycerol with a nitrating mixture. It is used in significant quantities as a secondary explosive in the production of dynamites and various propellants.

Nitroglycerin produces dilation of the cardiac blood vessels; it is used in medical practice in the form of an ethanol solution (in drops) and in tablets to relieve attacks of angina pectoris.

nitroglycerin

[¦nī·trə′glis·ə·rən]
(organic chemistry)
CH2NO3CHNO3CH2NO3 Highly unstable, explosive, flammable pale-yellow liquid; soluble in alcohol; freezes at 13°C and explodes at 260°C; used as an explosive, to make dynamite, and in medicine. Also spelled nitroglycerine.

nitroglycerine

, nitroglycerin
a pale yellow viscous explosive liquid substance made from glycerol and nitric and sulphuric acids and used in explosives and in medicine as a vasodilator. Formula: CH2NO3CHNO3CH2NO3
References in periodicals archive ?
The fourth chapter of this report on nitroglycerin market provides 2010-2015 historic data and information for global and China capacity, production and production value of nitroglycerin industry, cost and profit, supply and consumption as well as China's import and export of nitroglycerin.
Nitroglycerin metabolism produces glycerol 1,2- and 1,3-dinitrate (1,2-GDN and 1,3-GDN), and glycerol 1- and 2-mononitrate (1-GMN and 2-GMN) (Wendt et al.
For the radius, cortical thickness increased 14%, periosteal circumference increased 7%, and the polar moment of inertia increased 7% in the nitroglycerin group, compared with placebo.
A total of 400 women were enrolled, but only 243 remained in the study long enough to be included in the analysis; 126 in the nitroglycerin group and 117 in the placebo group.
The researchers found that compared with placebo, women randomized to the nitroglycerin group had significant increases in areal (an area) BMD at the lumbar spine (6.
Under the contract, Inyx will produce the nitroglycerin spray for the United States and most international markets for the first five years on an exclusive manufacturing basis, and then on a non- exclusive basis for the following five years.
Under the terms of the agreement, Par has exclusive rights to market, sell and distribute nitroglycerin lingual spray in the US and Canada.
According to test-tube studies, the enzyme becomes depleted inside macrophages exposed to nitroglycerin for a long period.
A trial of topical nitroglycerin may be considered, though its efficacy is controversial.
Cellegy is currently marketing a nitroglycerin ointment product called Rectogesic in Australia, where it was approved in 1999, for the relief and treatment of anal fissures.
There was, however, no recorded case of side effects among patients taking nitroglycerin medicine for heart ailments.
Murad, aged 62, now a pharmacologist at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston, analysed how nitroglycerin and similar substances affect vessels, and discovered in 1977 that they release nitric oxide, which relaxes smooth muscle cells.