The total active power loss of the network transformer includes the winding resistance loss and no-load loss
of the transformer.
Harmonic Impact on Distribution Transformer No-Load Loss
. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 57(1), 193- 200, (2010).
Kladas, Harmonic Impact on Distribution Transformer No-Load Loss
,IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 57(1), 193-200, (2010).
These no-load losses
for hypoid gears can be calculated according to Mauz formula:
Experiments show that the values of no-load losses
are most affected.
Its "sleep feature" smartly disconnects transformers at night, eliminating no-load losses
which can provide customers US$800,000[sup.3] of savings over the lifetime of a 100MW solar plant.
The parallel resistance is estimated via no load test with presumption that entire no-load losses
are dominantly due to the iron losses .
can be approximately estimated, multiplying the total no-load losses
of transformers by average service hours.
Other advantages of the toroidal core construction over the conventional stacked lamination type include size and weight reduction of up to 50 percent, higher efficiency, quiet operation, low no-load losses
, and cooler operating temperature.