Although Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis
are often considered together when discussing systemic mycoses, they are filamentous, gram-positive, bacteria in the order of Actinomycetales, and not true fungi.
In contrast to actinomycosis, pulmonary nocardiosis
preferentially affects immunosuppressed patients.
caused by Nocardia exalbida complicating Pneumocystis pneumonia in an HIV-infected patient.
Hoshi et al., "Disseminated nocardiosis
during systemic steroid therapy for the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection," Digestive Endoscopy, vol.
One patient had expired during study due to Nocardiosis
, after achieving EVR.
The laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestation of TB and nocardiosis
are similar and requires accurate laboratory test in order to distinguish one from the other.
The incubation period of nocardiosis
is unknown; however, in transplant recipients, one study showed that the median time from transplantation to the development of nocardiosis
was 34.1 months as was the case in our subject .
CTs of the head and chest revealed no lesions suspicious for nocardiosis
. Because the suspicion of RCC was extremely high based on imaging, the entire renal specimen was sent for pathological analysis as a fixed specimen but not for culture.
Other: lower respiratory infection: 9 patients; tuberculosis: 5 patients; histoplasmosis: 2 patients; cryptococcosis: 1 patient; disseminated strongyloidiasis: 1 patient; nocardiosis
: 1 patient; pulmonary embolism: 1 patient and undiagnosed: 3 patients.
is an opportunistic infection, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Other diseases presenting as discharging sinuses in children are actinomycosis, botryomycosis, nocardiosis
, and sporotrichosis.
The organism is slow growing and lesions frequently mimic chronic conditions like tuberculosis, nocardiosis
and even malignancy; some cases may be complicated by cold abscesses.5,6