Discoveries of molecules that assist VGSCs in nociceptor
hyperexcitability are enlarging the ensemble of potential targets that can be tested (Sharkey et al., 2009; Laezza et al., 2009; Stamboulian et al., 2010).
The collision of wall and toe triggers specialized pain-sensing nerve cells, nociceptors
, that reside in skin, muscle, and other tissues and keep the body aware of damage.
Inflammatory mediators can both trigger the nociceptors
directly and also sensitise them to other stimuli.
The present study tested the mechanical noxious stimuli applied to the lips, where there are nociceptors
The enzyme has been known to localize in both peripheral and central nervous system sites that process pain and is able to phosphorylate several cellular components that serve as key regulatory components in signal transduction pathways of nociceptor
excitation and sensitization .
in the nasal mucosa consist of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.
Post-herpetic neuralgia: irritable nociceptors
(27) Activation of primary (peripheral) nociceptors
can certainly trigger reflex responses--most obviously the withdrawal reflex--and modulate spinal motor output, without necessarily generating a sensory experience, (28,29) yet pain triggers whole-organism moto-behavioral outputs--i.e., purposeful responses such as limping, staying still, moving away, or seeking professional care.
Torebjork, "Sensations evoked by intraneural microstimulation of C nociceptor
fibres in human skin nerves," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
Translocation is necessary to allow phosporylation by PKC[epsilon] of specific cellular targets located in the plasma membrane in nociceptive neurons [16,17], including TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1) ion channels  and several other targets involved in nociceptor
sensitization and excitability.
Pain is caused by nociceptor
activation by noxious stimuli (chemical, mechanical or temperature) that initiate a cascade of neurotransmitter substances, which lead to an electrical potential change in nerve fibres.
Peptides and the primary afferent nociceptor
. Journal of Neuroscience 1993; 13: 2273-2286