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see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.


Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)


Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast, patients with moderate-capacity, low-affinity IAs may suffer from moderate nocturnal hypoglycemia.
Moreover, treatment with insulin detemir was associated with a significantly lower risk of overall and nocturnal hypoglycemia, and significantly less weight gain compared with NPH.
83) The average episode of nocturnal hypoglycemia lasts 86 minutes.
We believe this innovation has the potential to provide patients with added protection by lowering the risks associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia.
4] A greater percentage of BIL-treated patients also reported less nocturnal hypoglycemia compared to those on insulin glargine.
39) Nocturnal hypoglycemia may precede morning "hangover" and affect well-being and energy levels the next day.
1,2] Significantly more patients taking BIL met the ADA's recommended HbA1c target of less than 7 percent and experienced lower rates of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared to those taking insulin glargine.
Overall confirmed and nocturnal hypoglycemia rates were lower in patients requiring more than 60 U of insulin on degludec than on glargine, with confirmed hypoglycemia defined as self-measured blood glucose less than 56 mg/dL (plasma calibrated) or any episode requiring assistance.
3) We also believe that nocturnal hypoglycemia may well have been present and not recognized by the patient since even nondiabetic children sleep through nocturnal hypoglycemia.
1 All alerts can be customized to suit a patient's lifestyle, such as creating different settings to accommodate for exercise or to manage nocturnal hypoglycemia.
The pharmacokinetic properties of the new insulin analogs (eg, insulin lispro, insulin aspart, insulin glargine) offer significant advantages, such as improved control of nocturnal hypoglycemia with basal insulin glargine, and improved postprandial glucose control, with insulin lispro or insulin aspart.
Nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients receiving conventional treatment with insulin.

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