Figure 3 (1) shows a systematic relationship between the frequency and the first mode index m, identifying the number of nodal lines crossing the crown, on logarithmic scales.
For the crudest approximation in the (m,0) mode, a wall section between nodal lines is approximated as a Hat rectangular plate of constant wall thickness.
These clearly delineated, stationary regions are called nodes or nodal lines.
have been studying what information about a vibrating object can be gleaned from the positions of nodes and nodal lines.
Frons about as long as broad, forewings with two black elongate spots near bases of sutural margins, nodal line marked with several fuscous spots T.
Forewings translucent with veins yellowish green, nodal line and sutural margins suffused with grey zones, formed a reverse Y-shaped, tips of spines on hind tibiae and tarsi black.
Forewings with continuous transverse veins and with membrane bent down at rest, with 12 closed apical cells, Sc+R with one branch before subapical transverse nodal line.
Parapunana is also closely related to Livatiella Fennah, but can be separated from Livatiella by: the head including eyes distinctly narrower than pronotum (head as wide as pronotum in Livatiella); the vertex wide and short, apical half of submedian carinae very faint (vertex narrow and long, submedian carinae distinct in Livatiella), the eyes small (rather large in Livatiella); the forewing with Sc+R with branches before subapical transverse nodal line (one branch in Livatiella).