Due to the constraints of the storage of sensor nodes, it is necessary to decrease the storage requirements during the designing of a protocol.
From (21), we can see that the storage requirements of each sensor node are not related to the number of nodes in the network, it is only related to the radius in hops of the network.
In experiments, the network consisting of 2000 nodes is deployed in a circular shape whose radius is 600 m, and the BS is at the position near the center.
The RTT method requires the nodes to add the clock synchronization modules.
In the algorithm optimization part, reference  and  use the average hop distance to detect attacked nodes. When the wormhole attack exists, the attacked beacon node will correct the hop count automatically.
The authors in  developed a modified version of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) algorithm to determine redundancy in a given region of interest, after random deployment of sensor nodes in WSN.
In , the authors proposed a new technique, which combines energy-efficient cluster head and router selecting protocol (EECRS) for the elimination of redundant sensor nodes. They  have considered sensor nodes with different radius (variable radius) for determination of duplicate nodes.
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Agent nodes perceive the change of the environment and get the maximum reward value and get an optimal strategy for corresponding decision actions.
The return value is the ratio of the residual energy of Agent nodes to the energy consumed by communication.