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(science and technology)
A systematic arrangement of the distinctive names employed in any science.



in botanical, zoological, and microbiological classification, a system of scientific names for each taxonomic group, or taxon. With all the diversity of the organic world, a system of nomenclature ensures uniformity and stability in the scientific names of animals, plants, and microorganisms from the very lowest (intraspecies categories) to the very highest (realms). A nomenclature assigns only one name to each taxon. The choice of the one valid name is determined by a rule of priority according to which the oldest name that has been adopted in conformity with the rules of the nomenclature is considered to be valid; exceptions are handled in a special way.

The idea of binary nomenclature was first suggested by the Swiss natural scientist C. Gesner (1551–87). In 1620 the Swiss biologist G. Bauhin tried to introduce such a system into practice. The French botanist J. P. Tournefort (1694), the Englishman J. Ray (1682, 1686–1704), and a number of other scientists used binary nomenclature, but each of their systems was inconsistent and, as a result, did not enter common usage.

Modern botanical and zoological nomenclatures have developed from the classification system introduced in the classical works of C. Linnaeus (mid-18th century), who was the first to use binary, or binomial, names for all species known to him. The name of the basic category of the system, the species, consists of two words: the first is the name of the genus, and the second is the name of the species (for example, Euonymus verrucosa). The categories higher than the species (for example, genus, family) consist of one word (uninomial names). In zoology, trinomial names, consisting of three words, are common. The last word of the three is the name of the subspecies (for example, Cervus elaphus brauneri). All taxa are given Latin names. The names are considered to be Latin even in cases where they are etymologically related to other languages. Since 1935 the publication of new botanical taxa of presently existing species must be accompanied by a description (diagnosis) in Latin or a reference to a previously published Latin description.

Nomenclatures are developed by special international committees on nomenclature and are then ratified at international botanical and zoological congresses. They are subsequently published in international codes that have the force of legal documents. In view of the specific characteristics of cultivated plants, in particular their numerous varieties and varietal groups, the International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants has been developed. There is a special code also for the nomenclature of bacteria and other microorganisms.

There are also nomenclatures of names in physiology, biochemistry, and the other biological sciences for different physiologically active substances, such as enzymes.


“Mezhdunarodnyi kodeks botanicheskoi nomenklatury, priniatyi IX Mezhdunarodnym botanicheskim kongressom, Monreal’, avgust 1959.” Botanicheskii zhurnal. 1964, vol. 49, no 4. (Translated from English.)
Mezhdunarodnyi kodeks zoologicheskoi nomenklatury, priniatyi XV Mezhdunarodnym zoologicheskim kongressom. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Mezhdunarodnyi kodeks nomenklatury dlia kul’turnykh rastenii 1961. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964. (Translated from English.)
Mayr, E. Printsipy zoologicheskoisistematiki. Moscow, 1971. (Translated from English.)
Klassifikatsiia i nomenklatura fermentov: Otchet komissii po fermentam Mezhdunarodnogo biokhimicheskogo soiuza, 1961. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from English.)
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature: Adopted by the XI International Botanical Congress, Seattle, August 1969. Utrecht, 1972.
“International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 1966, vol. 16, no. 4.
International Code of Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants: 1969. Utrecht, 1969.
McVaugh, R. R. Ross, and F. A. Stafleu. An Annotated Glossary of Botanical Nomenclature. Utrecht, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
La atribucion al genero Hypnum se produce dentro del marco conceptual taxonomino propuesto por Carl Linne, no fue posible que el valenciano conociera la propuesta nomenclatural de Ambroise Marie Palisot de Beauvois: Hypnum paludosum (Hedw.
Given the cultural hegemonic resistance to the notion of having a distinct space for Black Studies that tended to confront the first generation of Black Studies (and I don't mean to say that institutional discomfort with or cynicism about Black Studies has evaporated everywhere), it does not appear to me, and the literature on this subject does not demonstrate measurably, that nomenclatural questions were accorded significant attention by the founders of the first generation black studies.
Por un lado se tiene una gran diversidad de nombres comunes o vernaculares, reflejo del lenguaje vivo, que cambia y que es parte de la cultura humana; por el otro, existe la necesidad de una uniformidad nomenclatural que funcione como herramienta de comunicacion entre las personas.
Rhodococci infections may go undiagnosed or misclassified because of difficulties in laboratory identification, nomenclatural instability, and similarity of signs and symptoms to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (e.
Based on the resulting conjectures, a character-state-based nomenclatural treatment (i.
No obstante, este supuesto confunde la estabilidad absoluta con la estabilidad nomenclatural requerida durante la refutacion de hipotesis filogeneticas (vease Schuh, 2003).
A checklist of the current valid species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and their geographical distribution, with nomenclatural and taxonomic notes.
Are the sexual, somatic and genetic characters enough to solve nomenclatural problems in lumbricid taxonomy?
The result has been nomenclatural cross-breeds such as stilbite-Ca, florencite-(Ce), and donnayite-(Y), and real nomenclatural monstrosities such as whiteite-(CaFeMg) and whiteite-(CaMnMg).
The increase in the number of reported Carex species can be explained by several nomenclatural changes as well as by new discoveries made since Mohlenbrock (1986).
2007), which is not rooted in any newly produced scientific data nor inspired in any more reasonable phylogenetic hypothesis, and just contributed to nomenclatural instability by means of proposed superfluous new binomials.