In the dictionary by Tsvetkov (1995), written at the beginning of the 20th century, the nominative has a short final vowel or no final vowel at all, the partitive usually ends in a short vowel (with some exceptions), and the genitive and illative show variation (sometimes rather confusing) in the length of the final vowel between different lexemes: ein 'hay:NOM', eina' 'hay:GEN/ill', eina 'hay:PART'; kana 'fish:NOM/gen/part', kanase 'fish:iLL'; tara 'garden:NOM/GEN', tara 'garden:PART', tarase 'garden:iLL'; vasar 'hammer:NOM', vasara 'hammer:GEN', vasara 'hammer:PART', vasara(se) 'hammer:iLL'.
A grammar by ArpaHaT (2007 : 45) states that the genitive and illative have a prolonged final vowel, the partitive forms with the -a marker end in a long vowel (the author gives the example kanaa 'fish:PART', but elsewhere in the same grammar only the form kanna is found), and the nominative has a short final vowel.
the nominative is more natural than the accusative.
If the language distinguishes between the nominative and the accusative of the personal-pronoun subject such that one case shows subject-verb agreement and the other case does not show agreement, then it is the nominative that tends to show agreement and it is the accusative that tends not to show agreement.
For example, a nominative NP, a locative NP, a dative NP and an accusative NP may all depend on a verb to follow.
Miyamoto reported that people read a clause-initial nominative-nominative sequence slower than either a clause-initial nominative-accusative sequence or a clause-initial accusative-nominative sequence, and attributed this slowdown to the hypothesis that nominative in Japanese induces a clause-boundary.
Nominative is particularly characteristic of the Forest Nenets direct object and of the Selkup Taz dialect direct object ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.
Terescenko's view as to the latter's assertion that in Selkup the nominative of substantives denotes definiteness of a direct object--E.
For instance, with regard to marking the nominative and accusative, only the markers for masculine singular nominative-accusative are contrastive while those for feminine and neuter nouns in the singular are homonymous.
For instance, the thematic role "agent" in German may have the following cues: nominative, subject-verb agreement, animacy, and/or initial position in unmarked word order (NVN).
form in sentences such as (1) is roundly condemned by usage pundits, although, oddly, some remark that the substitution of reflexives is not "grammatically wrong" but that "the results are awkward and pretentious" (Morris -- Morris 1975: 390).
8) There is also a relation between the partitive singulars that are homophonous with short illatives and those that correspond to truncated nominatives