Vernadat characterizes 4GLs broadly as "easy-to-learn, nonprocedural, and highproductivity languages for application development with computers."4 A nonprocedural language
specifies what is to be accomplished but not how to do it.
The next sections sketch various uses of profilers and a profiler for a nonprocedural language
. The final section discusses building profilers.
XPath and SQL share the common distinction of being nonprocedural languages
. Secondly, the returned values of both core (non-procedural) SQL queries and XPath queries exclusively reflect the structure of their respective data sources.
...nonprocedural in character, sometimes called 'English-like.' These languages (e.g., Focus, RAMIS) 'state merely what the result is to be, not how to obtain it.' With nonprocedural languages
, users need only describe the data and the relations that are appropriate to the application, not the detailed program steps.