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a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).


References in periodicals archive ?
As a nontuberculous mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium is ubiquitous in the environment and it has been recovered from water and soil, as well as domestic and wild animals.
Nontuberculous mycobacterium infections associated with heater-cooler devices: FDA safety communication.
Fourth, our experiments targeted only a nontuberculous mycobacterium that was found to have a major role in the etiology of surgical site infections.
tilburgii is an uncultivable nontuberculous mycobacterium related to M.
A nontuberculous mycobacterium strain was isolated by culture and preliminarily identified as M.
Cases detected by isolation of nontuberculous Mycobacterium spp.
The isolation of the nontuberculous mycobacterium was considered irrelevant, and no specific treatment was undertaken.
The clinical criteria required by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Disease Society of America (3) to assess the importance of the isolation of a nontuberculous mycobacterium from pulmonary specimens include, in adjunct to a specific symptomatology, the presence of nodular or cavitary lung lesions and the exclusion of any other possible cause of the disease.
The sequences of 16S rRNA, rpoB and the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region were identical to those of the nontuberculous mycobacterium species M.
genavense is a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium that infects immunocompromised hosts (4).