norm


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norm,

authoritative rule or standard by which something is judged and on that basis approved or disapproved. Examples of norms include standards of right and wrong, beauty and ugliness, and truth and falsehood. Several fields of philosophy, especially ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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, aestheticsaesthetics
, the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of art and the criteria of artistic judgment. The classical conception of art as the imitation of nature was formulated by Plato and developed by Aristotle in his Poetics,
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, and logiclogic,
the systematic study of valid inference. A distinction is drawn between logical validity and truth. Validity merely refers to formal properties of the process of inference.
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, evaluate such rules; in sociology, social and institutional norms, more communal and less formal than laws, are studied in relation to conformity, and to anomie or normlessness. See also Émile DurkheimDurkheim, Émile
, 1858–1917, French sociologist. Along with Max Weber he is considered one of the chief founders of modern sociology. Educated in France and Germany, Durkheim taught social science at the Univ. of Bordeaux and the Sorbonne.
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.

norm

a standard or rule, regulating behaviour in a social setting. The idea that social life, as an ordered and continuous process, is dependent upon shared expectations and obligations, is commonly found in sociological approaches, although some place more emphasis on it than others. For DURKHEIM, society was theorized as a moral order. This perspective was influential in the development of modern FUNCTIONALISM, particularly in the work of PARSONS, where the concept of NORMATIVE ORDER is the central element of the SOCIAL SYSTEM. Here the idea of norms is related to SOCIALIZATION and ROLES. These prescriptions operate at every level of society, from individuals actions in daily life, e.g. in table manners or classroom behaviour, to the formulation of legal systems in advanced societies. The concept of norms also implies that of SOCIAL CONTROL, i.e. positive or negative means of ensuring conformity and applying sanctions to deviant behaviour (see DEVIANCE).

Other sociological approaches deal with the issue of social order in rather different ways. In some, RULES are emphasized, rather than norms, whilst in others there is a greater emphasis on POWER and coercion.

Norm

 

(1) The minimum of something, as established by a rule or plan, for example, a time norm or sowing norm.

(2) A rule or viewpoint generally accepted in a particular social milieu; a rule of social conduct expressed in a law (legal norm).

(3) A rule or law in some branch of learning, for example, a linguistic norm.

(4) The average of something, such as a flow norm.

(5) Norm of representation, the number of deputies or delegates representing a preestablished number of voters in elective bodies or at congresses and conferences.

(6) Typographic norm, the title of a book or the name of its author, printed in small type on the first page of every printed sheet.


Norm

 

a mathematical concept that generalizes the concept of the absolute value of a number. For example, the norm of a vector x is the length of the vector and is denoted by ǀǀxǀǀ. The norm of a quaternion a + bi + cj + dk is the number a2 + b2 + c2 + d2; the norm of a matrix A is the number

and the norm of an algebraic number is the product of all the numbers conjugated with it, including the number itself. The norm is used extensively in the theory of linear spaces. We can find the norm for linear functionals in a given linear space according to the formula

and for linear operators according to the formula

norm

[nȯrm]
(mathematics)
A scalar valued function on a vector space with properties analogous to those of the modulus of a complex number; namely: the norm of the zero vector is zero, all other vectors have positive norm, the norm of a scalar times a vector equals the absolute value of the scalar times the norm of the vector, and the norm of a sum is less than or equal to the sum of the norms.
For a matrix, the square root of the sum of the squares of the moduli of the matrix entries.
For a quaternion, the product of the quaternion and its conjugate.
(metallurgy)
(petrology)
The theoretical mineral composition of a rock expressed in terms of standard mineral molecules as determined by means of chemical analyses.
(quantum mechanics)
The square of the modulus of a Schrödinger-Pauli wave function, integrated over the space coordinates and summed over the spin coordinates of the particles it describes.
The square root of this quantity.

norm

1. Maths
a. the length of a vector expressed as the square root of the sum of the square of its components
b. another name for mode
2. Geology the theoretical standard mineral composition of an igneous rock

norm

(mathematics)
A real-valued function modelling the length of a vector. The norm must be homogeneous and symmetric and fulfil the following condition: the shortest way to reach a point is to go straight toward it. Every convex symmetric closed surface surrounding point 0 introduces a norm by means of Minkowski functional; all vectors that end on the surface have the same norm then.

The most popular norm is the Euclidean norm.
References in periodicals archive ?
One reason I wanted to tell you about Norm is that I often think of him now as an antidote when I hear about divisions and problems in the Catholic Church--whether it's the sexual abuse scandal or harsh criticisms of Pope Francis.
"(Look) at how norms have changed around breastfeeding and family planning."
Despite the fact that social norms are one of the most widely studied drivers of human behaviour, scholars who study social norms disagree on what they are, how they sustain behaviour, and how they can be changed.
For the past decade I have attempted to fill in for my departed father during Norm's annual Schmidtheim call, knowing that at best I could only provide an indirect link to a seminal event in his life.
Insights on the expectation of fleet owners in the CV industry regarding preferred changes in product body design and engine power have also been included as well as the new product concepts that can maximize the benefits of the new axle load norms. The base year for this study is 2018.
In Balakan, Zagatala, Gakh, Sheki, Oghuz, Gabala, Ismayilli, Agshu, Shamakhi, Khizi, Siyazan, Shabran, Guba, Gusar, Khachmaz regions, average monthly temperature is predicted to be 8-11C (5-10C at nights, 0-5 degrees on some days, -7-12C of frost on upper mountainous areas, 15-20C in the daytime, 7-12C on some days) which is close to climate norm. Monthly precipitation is expected to be close to norm (29-73 mm).
Social norm refers to individuals' perceived social pressure to act or not to act prosocially (Ajzen, 1991).
Antje Wiener defines "norm contestation" as a social practice that not only entails the resistance to a given international norm, but also serves as a mode of critical engagement that affects political outcomes.
Key Words: Cephalometric norms; McNamara analysis; Orthognathic surgery.
This paper explores whether there is a need for a multiplicity of norms governing belief due to differences in the objects of those beliefs, particularly the difference between persons and nonpersons.
In some cases, militaries or governments will have relevant unique operational experience to lend to norm development efforts.