norm of reciprocity


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norm of reciprocity

the expectation that exists in many simple societies and also among kin and among friends in modern societies, that gifts or services must ultimately be reciprocated. Such exchanges are not strictly utilitarian and serve wider social functions and must be distinguished from more purely economically oriented exchange. See also GIFT EXCHANGE; compare EXCHANGE THEORY.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
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Drawing on social exchange theory (Blau, 1986) and the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), we proposed that social alienation would mediate the relationship between territoriality and idea implementation.
POS should bring about the norm of reciprocity, causing a perceived duty to assist the organization in addition to the belief that raised performance in the best interests of the entity is recompensed.
The personal norm of reciprocity. European Journal of Personality, 17(4), 251-283.
'There Is a norm of reciprocity in our society," he states.
In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to "pay it forward" rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver.
The norm of reciprocity implies that when one party receives something from another, some form of return is required (Gouldner 1960).
First, it examines whether the stakeholder prescription, in the absence of the norm of reciprocity between the firm and the stakeholders, can exert its influence on stakeholder-related decisions.
Labour, the argument goes, must reconnect with common-sense values of fairness centrally, the norm of reciprocity - if it is to win back support and return to office.
Sources: Alvin Gouldner, "The Norm of Reciprocity," American Sociological Review 25 (1960); Robert Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 4th ed.
This social exchange notion involves unspecified obligations in the belief of reciprocity under a generalised moral norm (Gouldner 1960) while organisational support theory, that extends the underpinning of social exchange and norm of reciprocity, proposes that an organisation receives an employee's affective commitment if the employee believes his or her needs are being fulfilled (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison & Sowa 1986).
The social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity have been used as theoretical frameworks in explaining why contract breach results in negative consequences (Robinson & Morrison, 1995; Rousseau, 1995).