where [u.sup.p_b.sub.xx] is the

normal displacement on the bottom surface of the plate.

The MTS applies the normal stresses and measures the

normal displacement and torque in the ring shear tests.

For example, the spectral

normal displacement [??] induced by a unit point force acting normally on the boundary of a half-space of Young modulus E and Poisson's ratio v is

Moreover, the influence of dimensions of spheres on the test results can be eliminated largely by non-dimensionalizing the

normal displacement S by the initial yield displacement [[delta].sub.y] , especially at the stage without obvious plastic flow.

Then, the

normal displacement of the top block, [DELTA][[delta].sub.n], generated in this cycle is monitored.

6, a), where d is the relative strain, [[delta].sub.u] is the ultimate relative strain, [DELTA]u is the relative

normal displacement of the spring, [[DELTA]u.sub.tu] is its ultimate relative

normal displacement and a, b and c are shape parameters [6].

The relationship between normal cohesive traction [T.sub.n] and

normal displacement jump [[delta].sub.n] can be expressed as

11 show the distribution of the amplitude of the displacement in the thickness direction over the array cross-section and the

normal displacement at the radiating surface.

It is evident from Figure 9 that the variation of

normal displacement at the step across the thickness of the thicker part shows full agreement for Models A and C, whereas, Model B results are grossly erroneous but tend to approach Models A and C results for sections away from the step.

For instance,

normal displacement [u.sub.z] at surface point (x, y) resulting from a normal point load P at another surface point ([xi], [eta]) is given by [13]:

Limitations of the "Symmetry" type, that prohibit the

normal displacement to the face, superimposed on face, obtained via original model section by the vertical plane, since only half of the wheel is considered in the calculations.

The coupling between normal and tangential displacements is considered, and the

normal displacement, tangential displacements, and rotation are interpolated by BSWI scaling function, respectively, according to the first-order shear deformation theory.