where [u.sup.p_b.sub.xx] is the normal displacement
on the bottom surface of the plate.
The MTS applies the normal stresses and measures the normal displacement
and torque in the ring shear tests.
For example, the spectral normal displacement
[??] induced by a unit point force acting normally on the boundary of a half-space of Young modulus E and Poisson's ratio v is
Moreover, the influence of dimensions of spheres on the test results can be eliminated largely by non-dimensionalizing the normal displacement
S by the initial yield displacement [[delta].sub.y] , especially at the stage without obvious plastic flow.
Then, the normal displacement
of the top block, [DELTA][[delta].sub.n], generated in this cycle is monitored.
6, a), where d is the relative strain, [[delta].sub.u] is the ultimate relative strain, [DELTA]u is the relative normal displacement
of the spring, [[DELTA]u.sub.tu] is its ultimate relative normal displacement
and a, b and c are shape parameters .
The relationship between normal cohesive traction [T.sub.n] and normal displacement
jump [[delta].sub.n] can be expressed as
11 show the distribution of the amplitude of the displacement in the thickness direction over the array cross-section and the normal displacement
at the radiating surface.
It is evident from Figure 9 that the variation of normal displacement
at the step across the thickness of the thicker part shows full agreement for Models A and C, whereas, Model B results are grossly erroneous but tend to approach Models A and C results for sections away from the step.
For instance, normal displacement
[u.sub.z] at surface point (x, y) resulting from a normal point load P at another surface point ([xi], [eta]) is given by :
Limitations of the "Symmetry" type, that prohibit the normal displacement
to the face, superimposed on face, obtained via original model section by the vertical plane, since only half of the wheel is considered in the calculations.
The coupling between normal and tangential displacements is considered, and the normal displacement
, tangential displacements, and rotation are interpolated by BSWI scaling function, respectively, according to the first-order shear deformation theory.