The internal resistance was reduced from 20 k[ohm] for a normal electrode
with Pt catalyst (in the case of MFC-NPE) to 14 k[ohm] when the PTFE waterproof layer was mixed with MG (in the case of MFC-NPGE).
However, this process has slow electron transfer kinetics at the surface of normal electrodes
. The aim of the research was to modify the electrode surface by using nanomaterials to increase the kinetics of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER).
Yet in recent experiments, ultrathin zinc wires did just the opposite: They conducted normally when between superconductive electrodes but became superconductive when between normal electrodes
Dopamine, melatonin, methionine and caffeine are drugs or foodstuff, which cannot be measured on normal electrodes
of gold, platinum or graphite at the same time.
However and due to some problems such as the slow oxidation of methanol and the pollution on the surface of normal electrodes
, it is very important to produce new catalysts to overcome the limitations.
The carbon paste electrode also has a stable electrochemical activity in comparison to other normal electrodes
, and can be used in electrochemical reactions of some of organic materials and biomolecules as a catalyst.