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(hī'drəsĕf`ələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.



edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.


Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.



, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
References in periodicals archive ?
With regard to cisternograms, it has been decided in consensus conferences in the United States, Europe, and Japan that the cisternogram lacks the sensitivity and specificity for an accurate diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Analysis of gait before and after cerebrospinal fluid lumbar tap test in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Postural disturbance in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.
In view of the above-mentioned findings and with the improvement post lumbar puncture, it was thought that the patient had normal pressure hydrocephalus with superimposed polyneuropathy.
Clinical features of normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Based on the physical assessment findings and diagnostic test results, the neurosurgeon diagnosed normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and recommended placing a permanent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) is a relatively unknown disease that is often mistakenly diagnosed as dementia, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
this week revealed the shunt inserted this summer to treat Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus is not properly functioning.
USC will also assess how the current work in multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus can be used for patient screening and evaluation in traumatic brain injury work that was jointly conducted last year.
During the second half of the year, Outcome launched several new post-approval studies, including a registry developed jointly with the American Association of Neurological Surgeons for Codman & Shurtleff, focused on adult patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH).