hydrocephalus

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hydrocephalus

(hī'drəsĕf`ələs), also known as water on the brain, developmental (congenital) or acquired condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of body fluids within the skull. The congenital form may be associated with other abnormalities. The acquired form may follow meningitis or another cerebral inflammation or tumor. The accumulation of fluid causes compression of the brain and enlargement of the skull, sometimes with separation of bone structures. Paralysis and death may result or, at the least, mental retardation. Many forms of therapy, including surgery, have been attempted, but usually without much success in extreme cases.

Hydrocephalus

 

edema of the brain, an excessive increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.

The cause of hydrocephalus is either excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain or obstruction of its efflux from the ventricles of the brain, as a result of inflammatory processes, tumors, or other diseases leading to closing of the apertures through which the fluid escapes from the ventricles. Congenital hydrocephalus is caused by congenital syphilis and toxoplasmosis; acquired hydrocephalus originates (usually in early childhood) after meningitides, menin-goencephalitides, head traumas, intoxications, and other afflictions. The most common symptom of hydrocephalus in children is an enlarged skull. In places where the bones of the skull did not knit normally, rounded, pulsating protrusions may form. Frequently there is strabismus and nystagmus. Sometimes a reduction of vision and hearing, headaches, and nausea are observed. Intelligence is diminished. Treatment of hydrocephalus calls for the removal of the cause, sometimes by surgery. It can be prevented by the elimination of conditions injurious to the mother during pregnancy and the prevention of neuroinfections during childhood.

REFERENCE

Arendt, A. A. Gidrotsefaliia i ee khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Moscow,1948.

V. S. ROTENBERG

hydrocephalus

, hydrocephaly
accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain because its normal outlet has been blocked by congenital malformation or disease. In infancy it usually results in great enlargement of the head
References in periodicals archive ?
CSF neurotransmitter metabolites and neuropsychiatric symptomatology in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Computerized axial transverse tomography in normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Even though ETV is mainly used for cases with obstructive hydrocephalus, recent data suggest excellent results in cases with non-obstructive hydrocephalus such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (36).
Key words: Normal pressure hydrocephalus, dystonia, Pisa syndrome, pleurotonus.
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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Opportunistic infections Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (subacute sponfiform encephalopathy) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Post-encephalitic dementia Bechet's syndrome Herpes encephalitis Fungal meningitis or encephalitis Parasitic encephalitis Brain abcess Neurosyphilis (general paresis) Normal pressure hydrocephalus (communicating hydrocephalus of adults)
Data presented in two abstracts from a clinical trial of [18F]Flutemetamol in patients with suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH), a progressive condition associated with dementia, gait abnormalities and urinary incontinence, undergoing shunt placement, correlated [18F]Flutemetamol uptake with histopathological tissue biopsies for beta amyloid in vivo.
They first address specific conditions and basic mechanisms in dementia and cognitive decline, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, corticobasal degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Gaucher disease, Huntington's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, Pick's disease, posterior cortical atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, cognitive vascular impairment, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, risk factors, malnutrition, the role of diet in chronic inflammation and innate immunity in Alzheimer's, pathophysiological mechanisms and nutrition, and body composition.
2) Other conditions associated with PBA include Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, normal pressure hydrocephalus, progressive supranuclear palsy, Wilson disease, and neurosyphilis (3)
Memory and cognitive problems that can be significantly improved or reversed with treatment are those that are associated with nutritional deficiencies (deficiencies of vitamins B1 and B12), reactions to medications or alcohol, high cholesterol, heart and lung problems, thyroid problems, infections, brain tumors, low blood sugar, a disorder called normal pressure hydrocephalus, which is caused by a fluid build-up in the brain, and mood disorders such as depression
Screening tests for normal pressure hydrocephalus, sensitivity, specificity and cost.