Normal Section

normal section

[′nȯr·məl ′sek·shən]
Relative to a surface, this is a planar section produced by a plane containing the normal to a point.

Normal Section


A normal section of a surface S at a given point M on the surface is the curve of intersection of S with a plane drawn through the normal at the point M. Normal sections are used to study the curvature of S in different (tangential) directions at M. Among these there are two (mutually perpendicular) directions, called principal, for which the normal curvature, that is, the curvature of the corresponding normal section, attains its maximum and minimum values k1 and k2 (the principal curvatures at the given point). The curvature of a normal section is assigned a plus (minus) sign if the direction of concavity of the section coincides with (is opposite to) the positive direction of the normal to the surface. The normal curvature of a surface in a given direction can be expressed very simply in terms of the principal curvatures; specifically, the curvature kn of the normal section in a direction forming an angle ϕ with the first principal direction is related to k1 and k2 by the expression

kn = k1 cos2 ϕ + k2 sin2 ϕ

which is Euler’s theorem on normal curvature. The curvatures of oblique sections of a surface are also studied by using the curvatures of normal sections. Specifically, the curvature k of an oblique section of a plane a that passes through a given tangent line a is expressed by Meusnier’s formula

where ϕ is the angle between the plane α and the normal to the surface and kn is the normal curvature of the surface in the direction of line a.

References in periodicals archive ?
By registering case under normal section the case was being diluted", he said
For a normal Section 232/223(f) purchase or refinance loan, the escrow for repairs and improvements may constitute up to 15 percent of the loan amount, so many owners view these loans as a good option for properties that need certain repairs and replacements to maintain condition and competitiveness.
The main inconvenience of this kind of worm is that in a normal section on the average reference helix of the tooth (of the spire or of the tooth space (the space between two teeth) it is not possible to obtain a rectilinear profile.
The fiber direction in the injection axis reference (1,2,3) is given by the two angles [empty set]' and [theta]', which can be determined by the measurement of ellipse dimensions d, a, and [empty set] in the normal section plane (see Fig.
When longitudinal forces may be ignored and the loading case A is considered (Fig 2a), the time-dependent safety margin of the normal section 1-1 of beams can be expressed as:
Services falling outside the angel list should come within the realm of normal section 482 analysis, especially for purposes of the section 6662(e) penalty.
Normal section in the figure corresponds to non-damaged line.
He went on: "The What's Normal section is an important feature because a lot of people, especially when they check themselves for the first time, get worried unnecessarily about things that are perfectly normal and then come to the GUM clinic in a lather.
Our fans will be accommodated in the Main Stand, not the normal section reserved for visiting fans and after speaking with the club and the police over there Rangers are satisfied with the security arrangements.
Aside from the normal section 367(b) notice requirements, a small shareholder must also satisfy section 1.